This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
An Analytical Method to Assess the Risk of the Lap-Belt Slipping Off the Pelvis in Frontal Impacts
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published November 01, 1995 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Submarining is a common cause of injury in severe frontal crashes. Furthermore, submarining protection may limit lap-belt designs, in that it restricts the range of usable lap-belt angles. Therefore a method to assess how close the occupant substitute is to submarining in a crash test is desirable.
In this paper the hypothesis was that the maximum value of the angle, in the x-z plane, between the lap-belt and the pelvis during the time-period when the belt force exceeds 3 kN is a measure of the lap-belt slipping off the pelvis in a frontal impact. In order to obtain this angle with high precision, five mechanical sled-tests with the Hybrid-III dummy was transferred into MADYMO. In MADYMO belt slip over the dummy pelvis was modeled by means of two orthogonal, translational joints (i. e. joints with one-dimensional translation as their only degree of freedom) on the right and left Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (A.S.I.S., also called iliac crest wing) and thus bilateral and unilateral belt slip could be assessed.
The results support the hypothesis. Thus a belt-to-pelvis angle of 11 degrees in the simulations corresponded to observed lap-belt slippage in the sled tests, whereas the lap-belt acted on the pelvic structures throughout those tests in which the belt-to-pelvis angle did not exceed eight degrees. Results from subsequent simulations point out belt-slack, velocity change (Δv), and initial knee angle as factors strongly related to the tendency for submarining.
The conclusion is that the maximum belt-to-pelvis angle during the time-span when the lap-belt force exceeds 3 kN can be used to estimate the tendency for belt slip onto the abdomen and submarining in mathematical simulations of frontal impacts.
|Technical Paper||A Kinematic Analysis of Lap-Belt Submarining for Test Dummies|
|Technical Paper||Submarining Injuries of 3 Pt. Belted Occupants in Frontal Collisions – Description, Mechanisms and Protection|
CitationNilson, G. and Håland, Y., "An Analytical Method to Assess the Risk of the Lap-Belt Slipping Off the Pelvis in Frontal Impacts," SAE Technical Paper 952708, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/952708.
SAE 1995 Transactions: Journal of Passenger Cars
Number: V104-6; Published: 1996-09-01
Number: V104-6; Published: 1996-09-01
- Adomeit, D. “Seat Design - A Significant Factor for Safety Belt Effectiveness” SAE Technical Paper No. 791004 , in proceedings of the 23rd Stapp Car Crash Conference 1979
- Aldman, B. Personal communication 1994
- Bosio, C. “Simulation of submarining with MADYMO” proceedings of the Second International MADYMO Users' Meeting 1990
- Deng, Y. C. Development of a Submarining Model in the CAL3D Program proceedings of 36th Stapp Car Crash Conference 1992
- Foster, J. Kortege, J. Wolanin, M. “Hybrid-III - A Biomechanically Based Crash Test Dummy” SAE Technical Paper No. 770938 , in proceedings of 33rd Stapp Car Crash Conference 1977
- General Motors Corporation “Hybrid-I11 - An Advanced Anthropometric Crash Test Dummy” National Highway Traffic Research Safety Administration Washington D. C., USA 1984
- Horsch, J. D. Hering, W. E. “A Kinematic Analysis of Lap-Belt Submarining for Test Dummies” SAE Technical Paper No. 892441 , in proceedings of 33rd Stapp Car Crash Conference 1989
- Håland, Y. Nilson, G. “Seat Belt Pretensioners to Avoid the Risk of Submarining - A Study of Lap-Belt Slippage Factors” proceedings of the XIII th International Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicle (ESV) 1991
- Kramer, F. “Abdominal and Pelvic Injuries of Vehicle Occupants Wearing Safety Belts Incurred in Frontal Collisions - Mechanisms and Protection” proceedings of 199 1 International Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact (IRCOBI) 1991
- Leung, Y. C. Tarriere, C. Lestrelin, D. Got, C. Guillon, F. Patel, A. Hureau, J. “Submarining Injuries of 3Pt Belted Occupants in Frontal Collisions - Description, Mechanisms and Protection” SAE Technical Paper No. 821158 , in proceedings of the 26th Stapp Car Crash Conference 1982
- Lundell, B. Mellander, H. Carlsson, I. “System with Optimized Seat Cushion Design” SAE Technical Paper No. 810796 1981
- Lupker, H. A. Fraterman, E. “Status MADYMO Program (1990)” proceedings of the Second International MADYMO Users Meeting 1990
- MacLaughlin, T. F. Sullivan, L. K. O'Connor, C. S. “Experimental Investigation of Rear Seat Submarining” proc. of the Twelfth International Conference on the Experimental Safety Vehicle 1989
- Natrella, M. G. “Experimental Statistics” National Bureau of Standards Handbook 91 1966
- Nilson, G. “Modifications to the Neck, Chest and Pelvis Description of the Hybrid-111 Dummy in MADYMO” proc. of 1992 International Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact (IRCOBI) 1992
- Nilson, G. Lövsund, P. Thorngren, L. Svensson, S.-E. Håland, Y. “The Potential Injury-Reducing Benefits of a Well Designed Car Seat” proc. of 1993 International Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact (IRCOBI) 1993
- O'Connor, C. S. Rao, M. K. “Dynamic Simulations of Belted Occupants with Submarining” SAE Technical Paper No. 901749 , in proceedings of Passenger Car Meeting and Exposition 1990
- Otte, D. “Comparison and Realism of Crash Simulation Tests and Real Accident Situation for the Biomechanical Movement in Car Collisions” SAE Technical Paper No. 902329 , in proceedings of the 34th Stapp Car Crash Conference 1990
- Rouhana, S. W. Viano, D. C. Jedrzejczak, E. A. McCleary, J. D. Assessing Submarining and Abdominal Injury Risk in the Hybrid-III Family of Dummies 892440 1989
- TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute “MADYMO Databases, Version 4.3” The Netherlands 1990
- TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute “MADYMO User's Manual 3D, Version 5.0” The Netherlands 1992
- Viano, D. C. Personal communication 1994