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Reactivity Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Operating on Gasoline, Diesel, and Alternative Fuels
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 01, 1995 by SAE International in United States
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This paper describes experiments conducted to determine the ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for various heavy-duty engines operating on “industry average” (RF-A) gasoline, California Phase 2 gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and diesel fuel. Each engine/fuel combination was tested in triplicate using the EPA heavy-duty transient cold- and hot-start test protocol. Hydrocarbon speciation was conducted for all tests to allow for the determination of ozone-forming potentials, using California Air Resources Board maximum incremental reactivity factors as well as determination of the Clean Air Act “toxic” emissions.
HYDROCARBON SPECIATION of exhaust emissions, in conjunction with the application of Maximum Incremental Reactivities (MIRs)(1)* for individual hydrocarbon species, is currently being used by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as an integral part of the certification process for light-duty low emission vehicles. This process allows comparisons of ozone-forming potential to be made between various fuels and “industry average” gasoline. The result of these comparisons is a reactivity adjustment factor (usually less than 1.00 for alternative and reformulated fuels) which can be multiplied by the non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission rate to obtain a reactivity-adjusted NMOG emission rate. Thus, CARB not only considers the hydrocarbon mass emission rates of light-duty vehicles, but also the potential for ozone formation.
Although light-duty vehicles have received considerable attention regarding ozone-forming potential(1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6), only a limited amount of research has been reported on the hydrocarbon speciation of exhaust emissions from heavy-duty engines operating over the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certification transient emission test cycle.(7,8) In order to investigate the relative propensity of exhaust emissions from gasoline-, diesel-, compressed natural gas (CNG)-, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-fueled heavy-duty engines to form ozone when tested over the EPA transient test cycle, South-west Research Institute (SwRI) sponsored an internal research program. During this program, emissions were measured from a variety of heavy-duty engines according to EPA protocol for transient emission testing of heavy-duty engines.
CitationNewkirk, M. and Bass, E., "Reactivity Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Operating on Gasoline, Diesel, and Alternative Fuels," SAE Technical Paper 952442, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/952442.
SAE 1995 Transactions: Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Number: V104-4 ; Published: 1996-09-01
Number: V104-4 ; Published: 1996-09-01
- State of California Air Resources Board, “Proposed Amendments to Low-Emission Vehicle Regulations,” May 1, 1995.
- Gabele, Peter, “Ozone Precursor Emissions from Alternatively Fueled Vehicles,” SAE Paper 941905.
- Kubo, S., Tamamoto, M., Kizaki, Y., Yamazaki, S., Tanaka, T., and Nakanishi, K., “Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions of SI Engine During Cold Start and Warm-Up,” SAE Paper 932706, Philadelphia, PA, October 18-21, 1993.
- Siegl, W.O., Richert, J.F.O., Jensen, T.E., Schuetzle, D., Swarin, S.J., Loo, J.F., Prostak, k Nagy, D., and Schlenker, A. M., “Improved Emissions Speciation Methodology for Phase II of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program - Hydrocarbons and Oxygenates,” SAE Paper 930142, Special Publication SP-1000.
- Bass, E., Bailey, B., and Jaeger, S., “LPG Conversion and HC Emissions Speciation of a Light-Duty Vehicle,” SAE Paper 932745, Philadelphia, PA, October 18-21, 1993.
- Whitney, K., and Bailey, B., “Determination of Combustion Products from Alternative Fuels Part 1: LPG and CNG Combustion Products,” SAE Paper 941903.
- Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program, SAE Special Publication No. SP-920, 1992.
- Newkirk, M.S., Smith, L.R., and Merritt, P.M., “Heavy-Duty Diesel Hydrocarbon Speciation: Key Issues and Technological Challenges,” SAE Paper 932853, Philadelphia, PA, October 18-21, 1993.