This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Diesel Cold-Starting Study Using Optically Accessible Engines
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 01, 1995 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
An experimental and numerical study was carried out to simulate the diesel spray behavior during cold starting conditions inside two single-cylinder optically accessible engines. One is an AVL single-cylinder research diesel engine converted for optical access; the other is a TACOM/LABECO engine retrofitted with mirror-coupled endoscope access. The first engine is suitable for sophisticated optical diagnostics but is constrained to limited consecutive fuel injections or firings. The second one is located inside a micro-processor controlled cold room; therefore it can be operated under a wide range of practical engine conditions and is ideal for cycle-to-cycle variation study.
The intake and blow-by flow rates are carefully measured in order to clearly define the operation condition. In addition to cylinder pressure measurement, the experiment used 16-mm high-speed movie photography to directly visualize the global structures of the sprays and ignition process. A photodiode was used to quantify the ignition and combustion event through the endoscope for the LABECO engine. Limited tests using two laser diagnostics techniques were also carried out on the AVL engine to help characterize the key physical processes involved in the fuel-air mixing. Planar laser-induced exciplex fluorescence was used to visualize the vaporizing diesel sprays; phase Doppler analyzer system was also employed to perform the simultaneous measurements of droplet size and velocity. A modified version of KIVA-II was used to evaluate the blowby, spray and multistep preignition kinetics models for the AVL engine data.
The results showed that optically accessible engines provide very useful information for studying the diesel cold starting conditions, which also provide a very critical test for diesel combustion models. The pre-ignition chemistry showed great sensitivity to the compressed air temperatures and the fuel-air mixting processes. KIVA with a modified shell model responds accordingly to the change of inlet air temperatures and fuel injection parameters. However, other submodels do not have enough sensitivity to simulate the starting of diesel engine without careful validation and further improvements. Blowby model is very critical for cold starting condition but current model underestimates the temperature effect. Widely used empirical correlations and breakup models tend to overpredict the penetration of the low pressure diesel spray typically observed during cold starting.
CitationLai, M., Henein, N., Xie, X., Chue, T. et al., "Diesel Cold-Starting Study Using Optically Accessible Engines," SAE Technical Paper 952366, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/952366.
- Abraham, J. 1993 “Simple Modeling of Autoignition in Diesel Engines for 3-D Computations,” SAE paper 932656
- Amsden, A. A. O'Rourke, P. J. Butler, T. D. 1989 “KIVA-II: A Computer Program for Chemical Reactive Flows with Sprays,” Los Alamos Report LA-11560-MS
- Bardsley, M. E. A. Felton, P. G. Bracco F. V. 1988 “2-D Visualization of Liquid and Vapor Fuel in an I, C. Engine,” SAE paper 880521
- Bryzik, W. Henein, N. A. 1994 “Fundamental Cold Start Phenomena within Advanced Military Diesel Engines,” Proceedings of 19th Army Science Conference June 20 23 1994 Orlando, Florida
- Colella, K. J. Balles, E. N. Ekchian, J. A. Cheng, W. K. Heywood, J. B. 1987 “A Rapid Compression Machine Study of the Influence of Charge Temperature on Diesel Combustion,” SAE paper 870587
- Dale, J. D. Wilson, J. D. Santiago, L Smy, P. Clements, R. 1985 “Low Temperature Starting of Diesel Engines using Timed Spark Discharge,” SAE paper 850049
- DeCarolis, J. J. Meyer, W. E. Espenschade, P. W. 1959 “Priming Aids for Cold Starting Diesel engine Engines,” SAE Transaction 67 351 364
- Dent, J. C. 1971 “A Basis for the Comparison of Various Experimental Methods for Studying Spray Penetration,” SAE Transaction 80
- Edwards, C. F. Siebers, D. L. Hoskin, D. H. 1992 “A Study of the Autoignition Process of a Diesel Spray via High Speed Visualization,” SAE paper 920108
- Fritz, S. G. Abata, D. L. 1987 “A Photographic Study of Cold Start Characteristics of a Spark Assisted Diesel Engine Operating on Broad Cut Diesel Fuels,” SAE paper 871674
- Gonzalez, M. A. Borman, G. L. Reitz, R. D. 1991 “A Study of Diesel Cold Starting using both Cycle Analysis and Multidimensional Calculations,” SAE 910180
- Kobayashi, A. Suzuki, T. Nakajime, M. 1980 “Combustion Analysis of the Vehicle Diesel Engine in Cold Starting Condition via High-Speed Photography,” ASME paper 80-DG-7
- Henein, N. A. 1986 “Starting of Diesel Engines: Uncontrolled Fuel Injection Problems,” SAE paper 860253
- Henein, N. A. Lee C.-S. 1986 “ Autoignition and Combustion of Fuels in Diesel Engines under Low Ambient Temperature ,” SAE paper 861230
- Henein, N. A. Zadeh, A. R. Yassine, M. K. Bryzik, W. 1992 “Diesel Engine Cold Starting: Combustion Instability,” SAE paper 920005
- Henein, N. A. 1993 “Diesel Cold Starting: A Phenomenological Model,” ASME ETCE Conference Jan. 31 Feb. 3 1993 Houston, TX.
- Hiroyasu, H. Arai, M. 1990 “Structure of Fuel Sprays in Diesel Engines,” SAE paper 900475
- Hoskin, D. H. Edwards, C. F. Siebers, D. L. 1992 “Ignition Delay Performance versus Composition of Model Fuels,” SAE paper 920109
- Kawamura, H. Yamamoto, S. 1983 “Improvement of Diesel Engine Startibility by Ceramic Glow Plug Start System,” SAE paper 830580
- Kong S.-C. Ayoub, N. Reitz, R. D. 1992 “Modeling Combustion in Compression Ignition Homogeneous Charge Engines,” SAE paper 920512
- Kong S.-C. Reitz, R. D. 1993 “Multidimensional Modeling of Diesel Ignition and Combustion Using a Multi-step Kinetics Model,” J. of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 115 4
- Koo, J.-Y. Martin, J. K. 1991 “Comparisons of Measured Drop Sizes and Velocities in a Transient Fuel Spray with Stability Criteria and Computed PDF's,” SAE 910179
- Lai, M.-C. Zhao, F.-Q. Amer, A. A. Chue, C.-H. 1994 “The Structure of Port Injector in Gasoline Engines,” Proceedings of International Symposium on Advanced Spray Combustion (ISASC) Hiroshima, Japan July 6 8 1994 79 89
- Lai, M.-C. Zhao, F.-Q. Amer, A. A. Chue, C.-H. 1994 “An Experimental and Analytical Investigation of the Spray Structure from Automotive Port Injectors,” SAE Technical Paper , No. 941873
- Liu, A. B. Mather, D. Reitz, R. D. 1993 “Modeling the Effects of drop Drag and Breakup on Fuel Sprays,” SAE 930072
- Melton, L. A. 1983 “Spectrally Separated Fluorescence Emissions for Diesel Fuel Droplets and Vapor,” Appl. Opt. 22 2224
- Murayama, T. Miyamoto, N. Chikahisa, T. Ogawa, H. 1983 “Elimination of Combustion Difficulties in a Glow Plug-Assisted Diesel Engine Operated with Pure Ethanol and Water-Ethanol Mixtures,” SAE paper 830373
- O'Rouke, P. J. Amsden, A. 1987 “The TAB Method for Numerical Calculation of Spray Droplet Breakup,” SAE 872089
- Prabhu, S. K. Wood, C. H. Miller, D. L. Cernansky, N. P. 1995 “Effect of Nitric Oxide on 1-Pentane Oxidation in the Low and Negative Temperature Coefficient Regimes (600-800°K),” Proceedings of Joint Spring Technical Conference of Western, Central States and Mexican Sections of The Combustion Institute 257 262 San Antonio, TX April 23 26 1995
- Reitz, R. D. Kuo, T.-W. 1989 “Modeling of HC Emissions due to Crevice Flows in Premixed-Charge Engine,” SAE paper 892085
- Tolan, L. E. Hess, T. D. 1983 “The Pencil Nozzle - Past, Present, and Future,” SAE paper 830666
- Zahdeh, A. R. Henein, N. A. Bryzik, W. 1990 “Diesel Cold Starting: Actual Cycle Analysis under Border-Line Conditions,” SAE paper 900441
- Zahdeh, A. R. Henein, N. A. 1992 “Diesel Engine Cold Starting: White Smoke,” SAE paper 920032