This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A Predictive Model for Knock in Spark Ignition Engines
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 01, 1992 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The present contribution combines the consideration of the chemical reaction activity of the end gas and engine operating conditions to predict the onset of knock and associated performance in a spark ignition engine fuelled with methane. A two-zone predictive combustion model was developed based on an estimate of the effective duration of the combustion period and the mass burning rate for any set of operating conditions. The unburned end gas preignition chemical reaction activity is described by a detailed chemical reaction kinetic scheme for methane and air.
The variation with time of the value of a formulated dimensionless knock parameter based on the value of the cumulative energy released due to preignition reaction activity of the end gas per unit volume relative to the total energy release per unit cylinder swept volume is calculated It is shown that whenever knocking is encountered, the value of builds up to a sufficiently high value that exceeds a critical value. Under normal operating conditions, the value of remains throughout the whole combustion period at comparatively very low levels.
It is shown that the model and the use of this knock criterion produce results that are in good agreement with experiment when applied to an engine fuelled with methane. The applicability of this approach to operation with other gaseous fuels can be Similarly considered.
CitationKarim, G. and Gao, J., "A Predictive Model for Knock in Spark Ignition Engines," SAE Technical Paper 922366, 1992, https://doi.org/10.4271/922366.
- McGeer, P. Durbin, E. Methane-Fuel for the Future Plenum Press 1982
- Karim, G. A. Wierzba, I. “Comparative Studies of Methane and Propane as Engine Fuels for Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition Engines,” Transactions of SAE 92 3676 3688 1984
- Rassweiler, G. M. Withrow, L. “Motion Pictures of Engine Flames Correlated with Pressure Cards,” SAE Trans. 83 185 204 1938 SAE Paper No. 800131 1980
- Down, D. Walsh, A. D. Wheeler, R. W. “A Study of Reactions that Lead to Knock in the Spark Ignition Engine,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A243 463 1951
- Checkel, M. D. Dale, J. D. “Pressure Time Knock Measurement in a Current S. I. Production Engine,” SAE Paper No. 890243 1989
- Karim, G. A. Klat, S. R. “The Knock and Autoignition Characteristics of Some Gaseous Fuels and Their Mixtures,” J. of Inst. of Fuel 39 109 119 March 1966
- Karim, G. A. Ali, A. [ILLEGIBLE]. “Combustion, Knock, Emission Characteristics of a Natural Gas Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine with Particular Reference to Low Intake Temperature Conditions,” Proc. of Inst. of Mech. Eng. 89 24 75 August 1975
- Dubel, M. Schmillen, K. “Influence of Gas Composition on the Knocking Behaviour of Spark Ignited Gas Engines,” Proc. Int. Gas Research Conf. Gas Research Inst. 952 963 1983
- Trumpy, D. K. Uyehara, O. A. Myers, P. S. “The Preknock Kinetics of Ethane in a Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE Transactions 78 1849 1969
- Leppard, W. R. “A Detailed Chemical Kinetics Simulation of Engine Knock,” Combustion Science and Technology 43 1 20 1985
- Chun, K. M. Heywood, J. B. Keck, J. C. “Prediction of Knock Occurrence in a Spark Ignition Engine,” Twenty Second Symp. (Int.) on Combustion Combustion Inst. 455 463 1988
- Karim, G. A. “An Analytical Approach to Autoignition and Knock in Internal Combustion Engines,” J. of Mech. Eng. Science 6 353 361 1964
- Karim, G. A. Zhou, G. “The Uncatalyzed Partial Oxidation of Methane for the Production of Hydrogen with Recirculation,” 39 Fossil Fuels Combustion ASME 1992 77 84
- Warnatz, J. “Rate Coefficients in the C/H/O System,” Combustion Chemistry Gardiner W. C., Jr. Springer Verlag New York 1984
- Westbrook, C. K. Pitz, W. J. “Kinetic Modeling of Autoignition of Higher Hydrocarbons,” Complex Chemical Reaction Systems Springer Verlag 39 54 1987
- Karim, G. A. Liu, Z. “A Predictive Model for Knock in Dual Fuel Engines,” SAE Paper Number 921550 1992 Natural Gas: Fuels and Fueling August 1992
- Karim, G. A. Al-Himyary, T. J. “A Diagnostic Two-Zone Combustion Model for Spark Ignition Engines based on Pressure Time Data,” SAE Paper No. 880199 1988
- Woschni, G. “A Universally Applicable Equation for the Instantaneous Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Internal Combustion Engine,” SAE Trans. 76 1967
- Al-Himyary, T. J. “A Two Zone Diagnostic Combustion Model for Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines based on Pressure-Time Data,” Mechanical Engineering, The University ot Calgary 1988
- Kowalewicz, A. Combustion Systems of High-Speed Piston I.C. Engines Elsevier Publishing Co. 1984
- Blizard, N. C. Keck, J. C. “Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Turbulent Burning Model for Internal Combustion Engines,” SAE Paper No. 740191 1974
- Hires, S. D. Tabaczynski, R. J. Novak, J. M. “The Prediction of Ignition Delay and Combustion Intervals for a Homogeneous Charge Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper No. 780232 1978
- Karim, G. A. Al-Alousi, Y. H. Anson, W. “Consideration of Ignition Lag and Combustion Time in a Spark Ignition Engine Using a Data Acquisition System,” SAE Paper No. 820758 1982
- Karim, G. A. Wierzba, I. “Experimental and Analytical Studies of the Lean Operational Limits in Methane Fuelled Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition Engines,” SAE Paper No. 891637 1989
- Young, M. B. “Cyclic Dispersion in the Homogeneous Charge Spark ignition Engine - A Literature Survey,” SAE Trans. 90 810020 1981
- Al-Alousi, Y. H. Karim, G. A. “Some Considerations of Cyclic Variations in Spark Ignition Engines Fuelled with Gaseous Fuels,” SAE Paper No. 840232 1984
- Heywood, J. B. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals McGraw Hill Book Co. 1998
- Karim, G. A. Zhaoda, Y. “Modelling Autoignition and Knock in a Compression Ignition Engine of the Dual Fuel Type,” Proc. of Inst. of Mech. Eng./Computers in Engine Tech C430 141 147 1991
- Konig, G. Sheppard, C. G. W. “End Gas Autoignition and Knock in a Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper No. 902135 1990
- Klimstra, J. “The Knock Severity Index - A Proposal for a Knock Classification Method,” SAE Paper No. 841335 1984