This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Universal Mixing Correlations for the Performance and Emission of Open Chamber Diesel Combustion Supported by Air Swirl
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published February 01, 1990 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The mixing of fuel with air in a diesel engine strongly dictates the specific fuel consumption and exhaust smoke. Many experimental studies reported the optimum swirl for a given diesel engine at a given operating condition. However, the attempts to correlate the relative penetration, or cross wind velocity or the ratio of total momenta of fuel and air, or the angular speed of sprays at a characteristic time resulted in only partial success in the past. The present work introduces the concept of useful air. The ratio of momentum of the useful air to the total momentum of injected fuel near TDC at the end of ignition delay period is found to bear a universal relationship with the indicated efficiency and dry soot emissions in case of combustion chambers supported by air swirl. The concept is enhanced when the injected quantity is small, by considering spray detachment from the nozzle tip and the swirling cloud of fuel vapour near the walls of combustion chamber. The correlation was validated for different combustion chamber designs of engine bores from 75mm to 110mm, running at rated speeds from 1200rpm to 2500rpm. The proposed correlation of momentum ratio has universal application for different fueling, operating speeds, combustion chamber shapes and bores when the combustion is intensely supported by air swirl.
CitationDani, A., Nagpurkar, U., and Lakshminarayanan, P., "Universal Mixing Correlations for the Performance and Emission of Open Chamber Diesel Combustion Supported by Air Swirl," SAE Technical Paper 900446, 1990, https://doi.org/10.4271/900446.
- Chandorkar, S.B., Dani, A.D., Lakshminarayanan, P.A., “Effects of injection parameters, fuel quality and ambient on the ignition delay and the location of the flame kernel in a diesel spray in a quiescent chamber”, SAE Transactions, SAE 881227, 1988.
- Dent, J.C., “Turbulent mixing rate - its effect on smoke and hydrocarbon emission from diesel engines”, SAE 800092, 1980, Diesel combustion and emissions, SAE Proceedings, P-86, 1980.
- Morris, C.J., and Dent, J.C., “The simulation of air-fuel mixing in high swirl open chamber diesel engines”, Proc. I. Mech. E., vol. 190, 47/76, 1976.
- Bassoli, C., Bodritti, G., Cornetti, G.M. “Optimum air motion and spray formation for D.I. Diesel, SAE Paper 850501, 1985.
- Ball, W.F., “A practical approach to the combustion modelling of direct injection disel engine”, Conference on recent progresss in automobile engine and emissions, La Sociéte' des 1' automobile, Paris, April 2-3, 1980.
- Timoney, D.J., “A simple technique for predicting optimum fuel air mixing conditions in a direct injection diesel engine with swirl, SAE paper 851543, 1985.
- Wakuri, V., Ono, S., Takasaki, K., “Influences of air swirl on fuel spray combustion in a marine diesel engine”, International symposium on flows in I.C. engines, ASME, FED-vol. 28, pp 47-55, 1985.
- Ishida, Kihara and Furubayashi, “Development of Direct Injection diesel engines”, SAE 850068, 1985.
- Munro, R., “Some diesel piston features in design analysis and experiment”, SAE 790858, Diesel engine thermal cooling, SP-449, 1979.
- McLean, D.H., Bremfoerder, F.W., and Hamelink, J.C., “Development of headland ring and piston for a four stroke direct injection diesel engine”, SAE 860164, 1986.
- Kuo, T.W., Henningsen, S., Wu, K.J., “Evaluation of four mixing correlations for performance and soot emission characteristic of a small open chamber diesel engine, SAE 880599, 1988.
- von Thien, “Entwicklungsarbeiten an Ventilkanalen von Viertakt Dieselmotoren” Osterreichen Ingenieur Zeitschrift, Heft 9, Jg 8, 1965, Springer Verlag.
- Abramovitch, G.N., “The theory of Turbulent Jets, M.I.T. Press, 1963.
- Ramsey, J.W. and Goldstein, R.J., “Interaction of a heated jet with a deflecting stream”, Jr. of Heat Transfer, A.S.M.E., Sec. C, vol. 93, No. 4, 1971.
- Kamotani, Y. Greber, I., “Experiments on turbulent jet in a cross flow”, A.I.A.A. Jr., vol. 10, No. 11, Nov. 1972.
- Lakshminarayanan, P.A., Dent, J.C., “Interoferometric studies of evaporating and combusting diesel sprays”, SAE Transactions, 830244, 1983.
- Henningsen, S., “Hydrocarbon emission from the ignition delay period in a D.I. diesel engine”, SAE Transactions, vol 93, Sec.6, pp 28-40, 1984
- Kuo, T.W., Wu, K.J., Henningsen., “Effects of fuel over-penetration and over-mixing during ignition delay period on hydrocarbon emissions from a small open chamber diesel engine”, Proc. of International symposium on basic processes in I.C. engines III, ASME, 1988.
- Whitehouse, N.D., and Way, R.J.B., “Rate of heat release in diesel engines and its correlation with fuel injection data”, Diesel Engine Combustion, The Inst. Mech. Engrs, Proc. 1969-1970, vol 184, part 3J.
- Lichty, L.C., Internal Combustion Engines, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1967.
- Borgnakke, C., Davis, G.C., Tabaczynski, R.J., “Prediction of in-cylinder swirl velocity and turbulence intensity for an open chamber cup in piston”, SAE 810224, 1981.
- Hardenberg, H., and Albrecht, H., “Limits of soot determination from optical measurements (in German)”, Motoren Techniche Zeitschrift, MTZ, 48 (1987), 2.