This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Abdominal Trauma-Review, Response, and Criteria
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 01, 1985 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
As an aid to designing an abdominal insert for anthropomorphic dummies, a study of abdominal trauma factors has been made. Questions regarding human impact response and tolerance were answered within the framework of primate scaling. Results of subhuman primate impacts and primate anthropometry were combined to produce injury criteria for frontal and lateral abdominal impacts. Impact response for the frontal and lateral directions was also defined for humans. The primate impact data used in the study was obtained in the early 1970's in laboratory tests utilizing a specially designed “air gun”. This test set up emphasizes reproducibility and control. Human lateral abdominal impact data first published by Walfisch et al., in 1980 were reanalyzed and used to check the primate scaling. Significant differences in impact injury tolerances for various abdominal locations were noted and detailed. As a result of these analyses little difference was noted in the force-penetration response as a function of impact location. A design envelope is proposed which can be used in the development of a dummy abdomen, and an injury criterion first suggested by Viano and Lau in 1983 is validated against the set of data analyzed here.
|Technical Paper||PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AUTOMOBILE HEAD RESTRAINTS|
|Technical Paper||Dynamic Response of the Spine During +Gx Acceleration|
|Technical Paper||Steering Assembly Impacts Using Cadavers and Dummies|
CitationStalnaker, R. and Ulman, M., "Abdominal Trauma-Review, Response, and Criteria," SAE Technical Paper 851720, 1985, https://doi.org/10.4271/851720.
- Beckman, D.L., McElhaney, J.H., Roberts, V.L., and Stalnaker, R.L., “Impact Tolerance - Abdominal Injury,” NTIS No. PB204171, 1971.
- McElhaney, J.H., Stalnaker, R.L., Roberts, V.L., and Snyder, R.G., “Door Crashworthiness Criteria,”, 15th Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceeding's, 1971, pp 489-517.
- Stalnaker, R.L., McElhaney, J.H., Snyder, R.G. and Roberts, V.L., “Door Crashworthiness Criteria,” NTIS No. PB203721, 1971.
- Stalnaker, R. L., Roberts, V.L., and McElhaney, J.H., “Door Crashworthiness Criteria,” NTIS No. PB225000, 1973.
- Stalnaker, R.L., Roberts, V.L., and McElhaney, J.H., “Side Impact Tolerance to Blunt Trauma,” 17th Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceeding's, 1973b, pp. 843-872.
- Trollope, M.L., Stalnaker, R.L., McElhaney, J.H., et al., “The Mechanism of Injury in Blunt Abdominal Trauma,” Journal of Trauma, 13(11):962-970, 1973.
- Stalnaker, R.L., McElhaney, J.H., Roberts, V.L., and Trollope, M.L., “Human Torso Response to Blunt Trauma,” in King, W.F. and Mertz, H.J. (eds) Human Impact Response: Measurement and Simulation, New York: Plenum Press, 1973a, p. 181-198.
- Melvin, J.W., Stalnaker, R.L., Roberts, V.L., and Trollope, M.L., “Side Impact Response and Injury,” 17th stapp Car Crash conference Proceedings, 1973 pp. 115-126.
- Gogler, E.A., Best, H.H., Braess, et al., “Biomechanical Experiments With Animals on Abdominal Tolerance Levels,” 21st Stapp Car Crash conference Proceedings, 1977, pp 713-751.
- Walfisch, et al., “Designing of a Dummy's Abdomen for Detecting Injuries in Side Impact Collisions, Fifth International IRCOBI Conference Proceedings, 1980, pp. 149-169.
- Nusholtz, G.S., Melvin, J.W., Mueller, G., et al., “Thoraco-Abdominal Response and Injury,” 24th Stapp Car Crash conference Proceedings, 1980, pp 187-228.
- Lau, I. and Viano, D.C., “Influence of Impact Velocity on the Severity of Nonpenetrating Hepatic Injury,” Journal of Trauma, 21(2):115-123, 1981a.
- Lau, I. and Viano, D.C., “An Experimental Study on Hepatic Injury From Belt-Restraint Loading,” Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, October 1981, pp. 611-617.
- Rouhana, S.W., Lau, I.V., and Ridella, S.A., Influence of Velocity and Forced Compression on the Severity of Abdominal Injury in Blunt, Nonpenetrating Lateral Impact. General Motors Research Publication, June 28, 1984.
- Frey, C.F., Trollope, M.L., Harpster, W., and Snyder, R., “A Fifteen Year Experience With Automotive Hepatic Trauma,” Journal of Trauma, 13:1039-1049, 1973.
- Owens, M.P., Wolfman, E.F., and Chung, G.K., “The Management of Liver Trauma,” Archives of Surgery, 103:211-215, 1971.
- Hardy, K.J., “Patterns of Liver Injury After Fatal Blunt Trauma,” Surgery, Gynecology, and Obstetrics, 134:39-43, 1972.
- Bates, T., “Abdominal Trauma: A Repor of 129 Cases,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, 49: 286-292, 1973.
- Bondy, N., “Abdominal Injuries in National Crash Severity Study,” National Center for Statistics and Analysis Collected Technical Studies, Vol. II: Accident Data Analysis of Occupant Injuries and Crash Characteristics, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, D.C, 1980, pp. 59-80.
- Crosby, W.M., King, A.I. and Stout, L.C., “Survival Following Impact: Improvement with Shoulder Harness Restraint,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 112: 1101-1106, 1972.
- Foley, R.w., harris, L.S., and Pilcher, D.B., “Abdominal Injuries in Automobile Accidents: Review of Care of Fatally injured Patients,” Journal of Trauma, 17: 611-615, 1976.
- Gallup, B.M., St-Laurent, A.M., and Newman, J.A., “Abdominal Injuries to Restrained Front seat Occupants in Frontal Collisions,” Proceedings of the 26th Conference of American Association of Automotive Medicine, AAAM, Morton Grove, Illinois, 1982, pp. 131-148.
- Gertner, H.R., Baker, S.P., Rutherford, R.B., and Spitz, W.V., “Evaluation of the Management of Vehicular Fatalities Secondary to Abdominal Injury,” Journal of Trauma, 12: 425-431, 1972.
- Grattan, E. and Clegg, N.G., “Clinical Causes of Death in Different Categories of Road User,” Proceedings of International Conference on the Biokinet-ics of Impacts, IRCOBI, Bron, France, 1973, pp. 73-81.
- Huelke, D.F. and Lawson, T.E., “Lower Torso Injuries and Automobile Seat Belts,” SAE Paper No. 760370, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1976.
- Leung, Y.C., Tarriere, C, Fayon, A., Mairrese, P., and Banzet, P., “An Anti-submarining Scale Determined From Theoretical and Experimental Studies Using Three-dimensional Geometric Definition of the Lap Belt,” Proceedings of the 25th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1981, pp. 685-729.
- Leung, Y.C., et.al., “Submarining Injuries of Three-Point Belted Occupants in Frontal Collisions: Description, Mechanisms and Protection,” Proceedings of the 26th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1982, pp. 173-205.
- Mueller, W.F., “Nonpenetrating Injury of the Abdomen in landcraft Accidents,” Accident Pathology: Proce edings of an International Conference, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C, 1970, pp. 196-203.
- Walt, A.J. and Grifka, T.J., “Blunt Abdominal Injury: A Review of 307 Cases,” Impact Injury and Crash Protection, Ed. Gurdjian E.S. et al, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1970, pp. 101-124.
- Williams, J.S. and Kirkpatrick, J.R., “The Nature of Seat Belt Injuries,” Journal of Trauma, 11: 207-218, 1971.
- The Abbreviated Injury Scale f!980 Revision), American Association for Automotive Medicine, Morton Grove, Ill., 1976.
- Whittaker, E.T., A Treatise on the Analvticl Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies, Cambridge University Press, 1965.
- Eppinger, R.H., Marcus, J.H., and Morgan, R.M., “Development of Dummy and Injury Index for NHTSA's Thoracic Side Impact Protection Research Program,” SAE Publication No. 840885, Government/ Industry Meeting and Exposition, Washington, D.C, May 21-24, 1984.
- Eppinger, R.H., “Prediction of thoracic Injury Using Measurable Experimental Parameters,” Prceedinqs of the 6th Experimental Safety Vehicle Conference, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, D.C., 1976, pp. 770-780.