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Soft Tissue Injuries of the Neck
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published February 01, 1979 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Whiplash is a poorly defined term including ligamentous and muscle strains, hematomas, disc injuries, and less frequently, brain, eye and ear injuries. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical signs and Xrays, electromyography and electroencephalography findings are few. Protection and rest will cure most patients within a year but approximately 2/5th of patients have permanent symptoms and disability.
Rear-end impact accidents cause the head and neck to hyperextend over the seat back. Whiplash occurs in 38% of exposed occupants. Head rests give protection but differential rebound may occur producing injurious hyperextension and whiplash.
The larynx, trachea and esophagus, in front of the spine, are injured by impact against the dash or steering wheel. Airway obstruction may occur and cause death if not restored quickly. Permanent disability can occur because of scarring and partial airway or esophageal obstruction or vocal cord damage.
|Technical Paper||Headrest and Seat Back Design Proposals|
|Technical Paper||Automotive Seat Design Concepts for Occupant Protection|
|Technical Paper||Fracture-Dislocation of the Thoracic Spine in Extension by Upright Seats in Severe Rear Crashes|
CitationStates, J., "Soft Tissue Injuries of the Neck," SAE Technical Paper 790135, 1979, https://doi.org/10.4271/790135.
The Human Neck--Anatomy, Injury Mechanisms and Biomechanics
Number: SP-0438; Published: 1978-11-01
Number: SP-0438; Published: 1978-11-01
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