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Hybrid III-A Biomechanically-Based Crash Test Dummy
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published February 01, 1977 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
This paper describes a new generation anthropomorphic dummy with component dynamic responses which approximate available biomechanics data. This experimental test dummy, Hybrid III, is based on the ATD 502 dummy which was developed in 1973 by General Motors under contract with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Like the ATD 502, Hybrid III features a biomechanically-based head design, human-like automotive seating posture, constant torque primary joints, and detailed documentation for fabrication. Hybrid III uniquely features a biomechanically-based neck, thorax, and knee covering. Transducers for measurement of neck loads and chest deflection are integral parts of the design.
While Hybrid III appears to provide a measurable improvement over the present “standard” dummy (Part 572) in terms of component responses in frontal impacts, it is still far from the “ultimate” test dummy. Hybrid III does not, for example, provide substantial biofidelity improvements for lateral impacts. This and other desirable improvements must await additional biomechanics data.
This paper describes the design and presents test results for three prototype dummies. Dynamic responses, relative to human cadaver and limited volunteer data, are presented for head, neck, thorax, and knee components. Performance of the Part 572 dummy is also presented for comparison. An evaluation of whole dummy repeatability and reproducibility during Hyge sled tests is described. Hybrid III and Part 572 dummy performances are compared. Additional work, which would be required to more fully evaluate Hybrid III, is outlined.
This paper concludes that Hybrid III component responses are significantly closer to biomechanics data than those of the Part 572 dummy. The three prototypes are as repeatable as the Part 572 dummy and significantly more reproducible.
- J. King Foster - Safety Research and Development Lab Environmental Activities Staff, General Motors Corp.
- James O. Kortge - Safety Research and Development Lab Environmental Activities Staff, General Motors Corp.
- Michael J. Wolanin - Safety Research and Development Lab Environmental Activities Staff, General Motors Corp.
CitationFoster, J., Kortge, J., and Wolanin, M., "Hybrid III-A Biomechanically-Based Crash Test Dummy," SAE Technical Paper 770938, 1977, https://doi.org/10.4271/770938.
- SAE Recommended Practice J963, “Anthropomorphic Test Device for Use in Dynamic Testing of Motor Vehicles,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, PA.
- Tennant J. A., Jensen R. J., and Potter R. A., “GM-ATD 502 Anthropomorphic Test Dummy - Development and Evaluation,” Report on the Fifth International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles, London, England, June 1974.
- Hubbard R. P. and McLeod D. G., “Definition and Development of a Crash Dummy Head,” Paper 741193, Proceedings of the Eighteenth Stapp Car Crash Conference, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, 1974.
- Culver C. C., Neathery R. F., and Mertz H. J., “Mechanical Necks with Humanlike Responses,” Paper 720959, Proceedings of the Sixteenth Stapp Car Crash Conference, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Detroit, MI, 1972 (shown in Appendix).
- Hubbard R. P., “Anthropometric Basis of the GM-ATD 502 Crash Test Dummy,” SAE 750429, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Detroit, MI, 1975.
- SAE Recommended Practice J211a, “Instrumentation for Impact Tests,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, PA.
- U. S. Department of Transportation, Part 572, “Anthropomorphic Test Dummy,” 38FR 20449, August 1973.
- Mertz H. J., Neathery R. F., and Culver C. C., “Performance Requirements and Characteristics of Mechanical Necks,” General Motors Research Laboratories Symposium-1972, Human Impact Response-Measurement and Simulation, Warren, MI, 1972.
- Neathery R. F., “Analysis of Chest Impact Response Data and Scaled Performance Recommendations,” SAE 74118, Proceedings of the Eighteenth Stapp Car Crash Conference, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, 1974 (Appendix Figure A-2, page 491).
- Horsch J. D. and Patrick L. M., “Cadaver and Dummy Knee Impact Response,” SAE 760799, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Detroit, MI, 1976.