This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Driver Training for Emergency Situations
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published February 01, 1972 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
This paper discusses the value and the need for the simulation of relevant driver information processing and control functions. The emphasis is on relevance of simulation to ensure that such a simulation would have the practical utility of helping to reduce some accidents.
An overall review is given of accident rate study findings, results of manual control studies, and conclusions based on psychomotor performance skills research. From this review, it can be pointed out that most people who drive a car, even as they are learning to drive, already know how to operate each of the various controls and switches and pedals found in a car. However, the sequence in which these should be operated, and the conditions under which they are operated are the critical factors to be learned and overlearned. It could also be pointed out from this review that the psychomotor skills of most drivers are adequate under routine conditions, but that these skills deteriorate under the stresses of speed, accuracy, task load, and information load. Such stresses can occur simultaneously under emergency conditions. Therefore, the overlearning of emergency driving skills is an important potential use for driving simulators.
Thus, this paper shows that the simulation of driver information processing and control must be aimed toward the training of specific population groups in specific control tasks and under emergency-type driving conditions, as well as under routine-type driving conditions. It is assumed that high-accident rate driving populations who receive such simulation training would be more adequately prepared to handle routine and emergency driving situations and would, thereby, reduce the likelihood of their being involved in a collision.
CitationZavala, A., Sugarman, R., and Rice, R., "Driver Training for Emergency Situations," SAE Technical Paper 720144, 1972, https://doi.org/10.4271/720144.
- Norris R. C. (ed.), “The State-of-the-Art of Traffic Safety.” Cambridge, Mass.: Arthur D. Little & Co., 1966.
- McGuire F. L., “The Effect of Qualitatively Different Driver Education Programs on Frequency of Accidents and Violations.” Proceedings of 12th annual Symposium on Pre-Crash Factors in Traffic Safety, Sacramento, Calif., 1968, pp. 245-258.
- Conger J. J., Miller W. C., and Rainey R. V., “Effects of Driver Education: The Role of Motivation, Intelligence, Social Class, and Exposure.” Traffic Safety Research Review, Vol. 3 (1966), pp. 67-71.
- National Professional Education Association, “General Statement Concerning The Professional Driving School Industry.” National Professional Driver Education Association, Inc., 1965.
- Bryan W. L. and Harter N., “Studies on the Telegraphic Language: The Acquisition of a Hierarchy of Habits.” Psychological Review, Vol. 6 (1899), pp. 345-375.
- Zavala A., “Determining the Hierarchical Structure of a Multidimensional Body of Information.” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1971 (in press).
- Fitts P. M., Briggs G. E., Noble M. E., and Bahrick H. P., “Skilled Performance.” Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Research Foundation, 1959.
- Garvey W. D., “A Comparison of the Effects of Training and Secondary Tasks on Tracking Behavior.” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 44 (1960), pp. 370-375.
- Gagné R. M., “Military Training and Principles of Learning.” American Psychologists, Vol. 17 (1962), pp. 83-91.
- Eckstrand G. A., “Current Status of the Technology of Training.” AMRL Technical Report (1964), pp. 64-86.
- Foley, J. D. Jr. (ed), “Human Factors Methods for System Design.” Pittsburgh: American Institutes for Research, 1960.
- Fitts P. M. and Posner M. I., “Human Performance.” Belmont, Calif.: Wordsworth, 1967.
- Rodell M. J., “A Comparison of Public and Private Driver Training Courses.” State of Washington: Department of Motor Vehicles, 1969.
- Blotzer P., Krumm R. L., Krus D. M., and Stark D. E., “Accident Causation.” Westinghouse Air Brake Co., 1954.
- Zavala A., Locke E. A., Van Cott H. P., and Fleishman E. A., “Studies of Helicopter Pilot Performance: I The Analysis of Maneuver Dimensions.” Human Factors, Vol. 7 (1965), pp. 273-284.
- Smithson F. D., “Development of an “Advanced” Driver Education Program.” Paper read at the International Symposium on Psychological Aspects of Driver Behavior, The Netherlands, 1971.
- Kroll C. V. and Roland, R. D. Jr., “A Preview-Predictor Model of Driver Behavior in Emergency Situations.” Buffalo, N. Y.: Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, 1970.
- Sussman E. D. and Morris D. F., “An Investigation of Factors Affecting Driver Alertness.” Buffalo, N. Y.: Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, 1970.
- Zavala A., “The Utility of Relevant Simulation of Driver Information Processing and Control.” Paper read at the International Symposium on Psychological Aspects of Driver Behavior, The Netherlands, 1971.
- Rice R. S. and Alianello D. A., “A Driver Characterizing Function-The g-g Diagram.” Buffalo, N. Y.: Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, CAL Report No. VJ-2882-K (1970).