This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
WATERFALLS, BATHROOMS AND--PERHAPS--SUPERTANKER EXPLOSIONS
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published February 01, 1970 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The electrical effects developed by Lenard splashing near waterfalls, under laboratory conditions, and within the closed environments of a bathroom and a cargo tank of an oil supertanker during seawater washing operations, show a consistent phenomenology. Both theory and experimental evidence suggest that electrical conditions in the closed container atmospheres are defined by
In this equation, N is the number density of large charged carriers (large ions and haze droplets), t is time, and e the electronic charge. The rate of charge production, Q, is approximately -10-12 coulomb per gram for the bathroom water and +10−11 coulomb per gram for the seawater. These values correspond to number densities of some 105 per cm3 and space-charge densities of ∓ 10-8 coulomb per m3. The field within a closed container is approximately proportional to the product of the linear container dimension and the space-charge density.
Conditions within an oil supertanker cargo tank during the washing operations are considered. It is concluded that the electrification is sufficiently intense for a large-scale spark streamer to have a good chance of developing. This chance--and therefore the explosion hazard--becomes larger with an increase in the size of the cargo tank.
CitationPIERCE, E., "WATERFALLS, BATHROOMS AND--PERHAPS--SUPERTANKER EXPLOSIONS," SAE Technical Paper 700922, 1970, https://doi.org/10.4271/700922.
- Lenard P., “Über der Elektrizität der Wasserfälle,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig), Vol. 46, 1892, pp. 584-636.
- Pierce E. T. and Whitson A. L., “Atmospheric Electricity and the Waterfalls of Yosemite Valley,” J. Atmos. Sciences, Vol. 22, 1965, pp. 314-319.
- Pierce E. T. and Whitson A. L., “Rebuttal to Comments on Atmospheric Electricity and the Waterfalls of Yosemite Valley,” J. Atmos. Sciences, Vol. 23, 1966, pp. 452-453.
- Weyl W. A., “Surface Structure of Water and Some of Its Physical and Chemical Manifestations,” J. Colloid Sci., Vol. 6(5), October 1951, pp. 389-405.
- Pierce E. T. and Whitson A. L., “Atmospheric Electricity in a Typical American Bathroom,” Stanford Research Institute, Sci. Note 8, SRI Proj. 4454, January 1967; Weather, Vol. 21, 1966, pp. 449-455.
- Morse P. and Feshbach H., “Methods of Theoretical Physics,” New York, N. Y.: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1953.
- Anderson R. V., “Absolute Measurements of Atmospheric Charge Density,” J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 71(24), December 15, 1966, pp. 5809-5814.
- Smith L. G. and Schilling G. F., “The Variation of Electrical Conductivity of Air within Sealed Rooms,” J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys., Vol. 4, 1954, pp. 314-321.
- Jones O. C., Maddever R. S., and Sanders J. H., “Sealed-Room Experiments on the Equilibrium of Ionization in Air,” J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys., Vol. 17, 1959, pp. 134-144.
- Gunn R., “The Statistical Electrification of Aerosols by Ionic Diffusion,” J. Colloid Sci., Vol. 10, 1955, pp. 107-119.
- Wait G. R. and Torreson O. W., “Large Ion and Small Ion Content of Air in Occupied Rooms,” Heating, Piping, and Air Conditioning, Vol. 7, 1935, pp. 105-110.
- “Compendium of Meteorology,” Am. Meteorol. Soc., 1951.
- “Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environment,” U. S. Air Force, 1965.
- Chalmers J. A., “Atmospheric Electricity,” New York, N. Y.: Pergamon Press, Inc., 1967.
- Bricard J., “L'equilibre Ionique de la Basse Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 54, 1949, pp. 39-52.
- Collin H. L. and Raisbeck P. A., “Errors in Recorded Precipitation Current Caused by Splashing,” J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys., Vol. 26, 1964, pp. 1107-1113.
- Smith L. G., “The Electric Charge of Raindrops,” Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., Vol. 81, 1955, pp. 23-47.
- Adkins C. J., “The Small-Ion Concentration and Space Charge near the Ground,” Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., Vol. 85, 1959, pp. 237-252.
- Smiddy M. and Chalmers J. A., “Measurements of Space Charge in the Lower Atmosphere using Double Field Mills,” Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., Vol. 86, 1960, pp. 79-84.
- Matthews J. B. and Mason B. J., “Electrification Produced by the Rupture of Large Water Drops in an Electric Field,” Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., Vol. 90, 1964, pp. 275-286.
- Pierce E. T., “Lightning Discharges to Tall Structures,” EØS, Vol. 51, 1970, p. 301.