This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Battery Electric Vehicles Energy Consumption Breakdown from On-Road Trips
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 14, 2022 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) sales have been spiking up due to a series of factors: zero tailpipe emissions, wider model availability, increased customer acceptance, reduced purchase price, improved performance and range. The latter is a crucial factor the consumers consider when purchasing a BEV, and it largely depends on how the vehicle operates (e.g. average speed), traffic, ambient conditions, and battery size. When driven on the roads, the actual range of BEVs can be significantly smaller than the certified value obtained from laboratory testing at standard conditions. To understand the factors influencing vehicle range in real-world operation, the study team performed on-road tests on three production passenger vehicles currently available in the European market. The measured quantities, including vehicle signals from OBD/UDS, were used to quantify the vehicle energy consumption. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data was used to calculate vehicle positioning and resistances, including altitude. Findings show an average consumption of 201.5 Wh/km for mid-sized passenger cars, ranging between 150 to 293.4 Wh/km (minimum and maximum observed values from a B-Segment vehicle and a 9-Seater VAN, respectively). Ambient temperature is one of the factors introducing a high variability in real-world energy consumption, as electric energy is used both for cabin heating and cooling, which might lead to range reductions of 30-50 % under extreme conditions. An energy breakdown is presented for each trip, describing the typical share of propulsion, cooling/heating needs and other auxiliaries.
- Alessandro Tansini - European Commission's Joint Research Centre
- Giuseppe Di Pierro - European Commission's Joint Research Centre
- Georgios Fontaras - European Commission's Joint Research Centre
- Susana Gil-Sayas - Universitat Politècnica de València
- Dimitrios Komnos - FINCONS SPA Group, Italy
- Davide Currò - Piksel s.r.l., Italy
CitationTansini, A., Di Pierro, G., Fontaras, G., Gil-Sayas, S. et al., "Battery Electric Vehicles Energy Consumption Breakdown from On-Road Trips," SAE Technical Paper 2022-37-0009, 2022.
- Ritchie , H. , and Roser , M. 2 2020
- European Environmental Agency 2021
- European Environmental Agency 2021
- 2022 https://ec.europa.eu/clima/eu-action/european-green-deal/european-climate-law_en
- 2022 https://ec.europa.eu/clima/eu-action/european-green-deal/delivering-european-green-deal_en
- 2022 https://www.iea.org/reports/global-ev-outlook-2021/trends-and-developments-in-electric-vehicle-markets
- Park , E. , Lim , J. , and Cho , Y. Understanding the Emergence and Social Acceptance of Electric Vehicles as Next-Generation Models for the Automobile Industry Sustainability (Switzerland) 10 2018 10.3390/su10030662
- International Council on Clean Transportation 2022
- Mamikoglu , S. , Andric , J. , and Dahlander , P. Impact of Conventional and Electrified Powertrains on Fuel Economy in Various Driving Cycles SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0903 2017 10.4271/2017-01-0903
- Fiori , C. , Arcidiacono , V. , Fontaras , G. , Makridis , M. et al. The Effect of Electrified Mobility on the Relationship between Traffic Conditions and Energy Consumption Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 67 2019 275 290 10.1016/j.trd.2018.11.018
- De Cauwer , C. , Maarten , M. , Heyvaert , S. , Coosemans , T. et al. Electric Vehicle Use and Energy Consumption Based on Realworld Electric Vehicle Fleet Trip and Charge Data and Its Impact on Existing EV Research Models WEVJ 7 3 2015 436 446 10.3390/wevj7030436
- Paffumi , E. , Otura , M. , Centurelli , M. , Casellas , R. et al.
- U.S. Space Force
- Thiel , C. , Gracia Amillo , A. , Tansini , A. , Tsakalidis , A. et al. Impact of Climatic Conditions on Prospects for Integrated Photovoltaics in Electric Vehicles Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 158 2022 112109 10.1016/j.rser.2022.112109
- Andersson , C.
- Tansini , A. 2 2020
- Samaras , Z. , Tsokolis , D. , Dimaratos , A. , Ntziachristos , L. et al. A Model Based Definition of a Reference CO 2 Emissions Value for Passenger Cars under Real World Conditions SAE Technical Paper 2018-37-0031 2018 10.4271/2018-37-0031
- Giechaskiel , B. , Komnos , D. , and Fontaras , G. Impacts of Extreme Ambient Temperatures and Road Gradient on Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of a Euro 6d-Temp Gasoline Vehicle Energies 14 19 2021 6195 10.3390/en14196195
- Lajunen , A. Energy Efficiency and Performance of Cabin Thermal Management in Electric Vehicles SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0192 2017 10.4271/2017-01-0192