This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Analysis of a Supercharged Gas Turbine Engine Concept and Preliminary Investigation of a Version Using Argon as the Working Fluid
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 29, 2022 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The paper presents results from a study into the potential of a complex cycle gas turbine engine, originally investigated by the Ford Motor Company for truck applications in the 1960s, and updated to gauge the possible improvements by raising the efficiencies of its constituent components from the values used in period to more modern levels.
To perform this investigation, firstly a spreadsheet model was constructed and the data that Ford made available in the open literature were used to validate it. The methodology used in the model was to balance the power consumed by the compressors (and the auxiliaries where applicable) with that produced by their driving turbines, and to match the thermal power in the heat exchangers with the data provided. Using the quoted lower heating value of the diesel fuel originally used, this approach led to an accuracy in the match of brake specific fuel consumption (in terms of g/kWh) to three places of decimals. Using this validated model, any improvement in the performance of individual devices would then manifest in an increase in expansion ratio available at the power turbine and, for the same system heat input, concomitantly more power and an increase in thermal efficiency. The expected improvement in efficiency with an increase in turbine inlet temperature was also shown by increasing it from the original 1200 K up to 2000 K, with the efficiency relationship becoming asymptotic in line with theory.
The second stage of the study was a preliminary investigation of the effects of operating the concept using argon as the working fluid, this imagined to be achieved by closing the cycle and adding a heat exchanger at its bottom. This suggests the potential of the Joule cycle in this regard: the improvement in cycle efficiency at the overall system pressure ratio of 15.5 was predicted as 20.9% versus the 22.6% predicted from simple Joule cycle theory. While there are caveats arising from the fact that the engine studied has anything but a simple cycle, from this result it is considered that this concept is worthy of some further fundamental study.
CitationTurner, J. and Togawa, K., "Analysis of a Supercharged Gas Turbine Engine Concept and Preliminary Investigation of a Version Using Argon as the Working Fluid," SAE Technical Paper 2022-01-0595, 2022, https://doi.org/10.4271/2022-01-0595.
- Butcher , L. Top Cat Engine Technology International November 2021 10 13
- Turner , J. , Blake , D. , Moore , J. , Burke , P. et al. The Lotus Range Extender Engine SAE Int. J. Engines 3 2 2010 318 351 https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-2208
- Wragge-Morley , R.T. , Vorraro , G. , Turner , J.W.G. , Brace , C.J. , et al. Numerical Evaluation and Optimization of a Hybrid Vehicle Employing a Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine as a Range Extender Institution of Mechanical Engineers Powertrain Systems for Net-Zero Transport Conference London, UK 7th-8th December, 2021
- Crombac , J. Turbine Grand Prix Milan, Italy Automobilia Publishing 1st January, 1989 978-8885880023
- Holderith , P. https://www.thedrive.com/news/33909/the-turbine-truck-wars-inside-ford-and-chevys-jet-age-battle-for-a-better-semi-truck 2021
- Lehto , S. Chrysler's Turbine Car: The Rise and Fall of Detroit's Coolest Creation Chicago, Illinois, USA Chicago Review Press 1st May 2012 978-1613743454
- Dixon , M. Putting A Positive Spin on it Octane Magazine July 2021 70 78
- Mortimer , J. The ‘Nearly’ Engine 2nd self-published by author April, 2015 978-1326177072
- Holderith , P. 2021 https://www.thedrive.com/news/37925/we-found-fords-incredible-turbine-powered-semi-truck-big-red-thats-been-lost-for-decades th
- Swatman , I.M. and Malohn , D.A. An Advanced Automotive Gas Turbine Engine Concept SAE Transactions 69 1961 219 227
- Swatman , I. Development of the Ford 704 Gas Turbine Engine SAE Technical Paper 620516 1962 https://doi.org/10.4271/620516
- Angell , P.R. and Golec , T. Upgrading Automotive Gas Turbine Technology - An Experimental Evaluation of Improvement Concepts SAE Transactions 85 Sec. 2 1976 1141 1190 10.4271/760280
- HyPACE - Hybrid Petrol Advance Combustion Engine - Advanced Boosting System for Extended Stoichiometric Operation and Improved Dynamic Response SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0325 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0325
- Evans , D.G. and Miller , T.J. An Overview of Aerospace Gas Turbine Technology of Relevance to the Development of the Automotive Gas Turbine Engine SAE 1978 World Congress Detroit, Michigan, USA 27th February - 3rd March, 1978 10.4271/780075
- Lipinski , J.J. , Brine , P.R. , Buch , R.J. , and Lester , G.R. Development and Test of a Catalytic Combustor for an Automotive Gas Turbine paper number 98-GT-390, ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition Stockholm, Sweden 2nd-5th June, 1998
- Azizi , M.A. and Brouwer , J. Progress in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Power Systems: System Design and Analysis, Transient Operation, Controls and Optimization Applied Energy 215 237 289 2018 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.01.098
- Freeh , J.E. , Pratt , J.W. , and Brouwer , J. Development of a Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid System Model for Aerospace Applications paper number GT2004-53616, ASME Turbo Expo 2004 Vienna, Austria 14th-17th June, 2004
- Collins , J.M. and McLarty , D. All-Electric Commercial Aviation with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine-Battery Hybrids Applied Energy 265 114787 29th February 2020
- Turner , J.W.G. April, 2012
- de Boer , P.C.T. and Hulet , J.F. Performance of a Hydrogen-Oxygen-Noble Gas Engine Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 5 439 452 1980
- Killingsworth , N.J. , Rapp , V.H. , Flowers , D.L. , Aceves , S.M. , Chen , J.-Y. , and Dibble , R. Increased Efficiency in SI Engine with Air Replaced by Oxygen in Argon Mixture 33rd International Symposium on Combustion Beijing, China 1st-6th August, 2010
- Mohammed , A. , Masurier , J. , Elkhazraji , A. , Dibble , R. et al. A Path towards High Efficiency Using Argon in an HCCI Engine SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0951 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0951
- Ehrler , T. , Cech , M. , Tschalamoff , T. , Knape , M. , and Reiser , C. Zero-Emission Closed Cycle Engine for Reconversion of Green Hydrogen 11th Dessau Gas Engine Conference Dessau-Roßlau, Germany 11th-12th April, 2019
- Togawa , K. 2020
- Cohen , H. , Rogers , G.F.C. , and Saravanamuttoo , H.I.H.
- Fletcher , J.C. , Laumann , E.A. , and Reynolds , R.K. September, 1978
- Wood , S. and Bloomfield , J. Clean Power - Lotus 2.2 Lt Chargecooled Engine SAE Technical Paper 900269 1990 https://doi.org/10.4271/900269
- Kerkau , M. , Knirsch , S. and Neußer , H.-J. The New Six-Cylinder Bi-Turbo Engine with Variable Turbine Geometry for the Porsche 911 Turbo 27th Vienna Motor Symposium Vienna, Austria 27th-28th April, 2006 111 135
- https://presskit.porsche.de/anniversaries/en/70-years-porsche-sports-cars/topic/category/technische-meilensteine/items/en-turbocharger-with-variable-turbine-geometry-vtg-569.html th
- Rapp , V.H. 2011
- Gong , Y. , Deng , J. , Dou , H. , Gong , Y. , et al. The Simulation Study on the Thermal Efficiency of Argon Cycle Engine based on GT Power 10th Asia-Pacific Conference on Combustion Beijing, China 19th-22nd July, 2015
- Joule , J.P. and Thomson , W. st https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstl.1852.0006 th 2021
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brayton_cycle th