This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
LPG and Prechamber as Enabler for Highly Performant and Efficient Combustion Processes Under Stoichiometric Conditions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 05, 2021 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
The European Union has defined legally binding CO2-fleet targets for new cars until 2030. Therefore, improvement of fuel economy and carbon dioxide emission reduction is becoming one of the most important issues for the car manufacturers. Today’s conventional car powertrain systems are reaching their technical limits and will not be able to meet future CO2 targets without further improvement in combustion efficiency, using low carbon fuels (LCF), and at least mild electrification.
This paper demonstrates a highly efficient and performant combustion engine concept with a passive pre-chamber spark plug, operating at stoichiometric conditions and powered with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Even from fossil origin, LPG features many advantages such as low carbon/hydrogen ratio, low price and broad availability. In future, it can be produced from renewables and it is in liquid state under relatively low pressures, allowing the use of conventional injection and fuel supply components.
To take advantage of the specific capabilities of LPG a combustion system is designed to increase combustion efficiency and decrease fuel consumption and engine-out emissions. The applied combustion chamber geometry, including the passive pre-chamber, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures and consequently higher peak power when operating under stoichiometric conditions.
The presented combustion system was developed by means of extensive 3D-CFD simulations and experimental single-cylinder engine results by applying advanced combustion diagnosis and analysis tools. The potential of the combustion system is demonstrated over the entire engine map focusing on certification and real operating conditions such as idle, low load and maximum power. The potential of the combustion process will be figured out, both for low and high-power densities, with respect to future emission limitations.
CitationSchmid, H., Kollmeier PhD, H., Kraljevic, I., Gottwald, T. et al., "LPG and Prechamber as Enabler for Highly Performant and Efficient Combustion Processes Under Stoichiometric Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2021-24-0032, 2021, https://doi.org/10.4271/2021-24-0032.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|Unnamed Dataset 1|
|Unnamed Dataset 2|
|Unnamed Dataset 3|
|Unnamed Dataset 4|
- Chiodi , M. 2010 10.1007/978-3-8348-8131-1
- Cupo , F. 2020 10.1007/978-3-658-31628-0 .
- Kaechele , A. 2019 10.1007/978-3-658-28786-3
- European Commission 2020 https://op.europa.eu/s/omUF
- Adolf , J. , Balzer , C. , Joedicke , A. , and Schabla , U. 2015
- Heil , V. 2011
- Ariztegui , J. , Gutierrez , J. , Fürhapter , A. , and Friedl , H. LPG-Flüssiggas-Direkteinspritzung für Turbo-Ottomotoren MTZ - Motortechnische Zeitschrift 76 10 2015 28 35 https://doi.org/10.1007/s35146-015-0109-6
- DIN German Institute for Standardization 2018
- Krieck , M. , Günther , M. , Pischinger , S. , Kramer , U. et al. Future Specification of Automotive LPG Fuels for Modern Turbocharged DI SI Engines with Today’s High Pressure Fuel Pumps SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 9 3 2016 575 592 https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-2255
- Singh , A.P. , Avinash , R. , Avinash , A. , Agarwal , K. et al. Prospects of Alternative Transportation Fuels Singapore Springer 2018 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7518-6
- Prussi , M. , Yugo , M. , De Prada , L. , Padella , M. et al. JEC Well-to-Tank report v5, EUR 30269 EN Luxembourg Publications Office of the European Union 2020 10.2760/959137 978-92-76-19926-7
- Toulson , E. , Schock , H. , and Attard , W. A Review of Pre-Chamber Initiated Jet Ignition Combustion Systems SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2263 2010 https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-2263
- Turkish , M. 3 - Valve Stratified Charge Engines: Evolvement, Analysis and Progression SAE Technical Paper 741163 1974 https://doi.org/10.4271/741163
- Date , T. , Yagi , S. , Ishizuya , A. , and Fujii , I. Research and Development of the Honda CVCC Engine SAE Technical Paper 740605 1974 https://doi.org/10.4271/740605
- Gussak , L. , Karpov , V. , and Tikhonov , Y. The Application of Lag-Process in Prechamber Engines SAE Technical Paper 790692 1979 https://doi.org/10.4271/790692
- Oppenheim , A. Prospects for Combustion in Piston Engines SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0999 2002 https://doi.org/10.4271/2002-01-0999
- Latsch , R. The Swirl-Chamber Spark Plug: A Means of Faster, More Uniform Energy Conversion in the Spark-Ignition Engine SAE Technical Paper 840455 1984 https://doi.org/10.4271/840455
- Kettner , M. 2006
- Kettner , M. , Rothe , M. , Velji , A. , Spicher , U. et al. A New Flame Jet Concept to Improve the Inflammation of Lean Burn Mixtures in SI Engines SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-3688 2005 https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-3688
- Bunce , M. , and Blaxill , H. Development of both Active and Passive Pre-Chamber Jet Ignition Multi-Cylinder Demonstrator Engines 28th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 907 942 2019
- Sens , D.M. , Binder , E. , and Reinicke , D.P. Pre-Chamber Ignition and Promising Complementary Technologies 27th Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 957 998 2018
- Pielecha , I. and Cieślik , W. Thermodynamic Analysis of Indexes of Operation of the Engine with Direct Fuel Injection for Idle Speed and Acceleration Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 126 2 2016 815 827 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-016-5544-1
- Whitaker , P. , Kapus , P. , Ogris , M. , and Hollerer , P. Measures to Reduce Particulate Emissions from Gasoline DI engines SAE International Journal of Engines 4 1 2011 1498 1512 https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-1219
- Walther , J. 2002
- Heywood , J. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals NewYork McGraw Hill 1988
- Wentsch , M. , Chiodi , M. , and Bargende , M. Fuel Injection Analysis with a Fast Response 3D-CFD Tool SAE Technical Paper 2017-24-0103 2017 https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-24-0103
- Krieck , M. , Kramer , U. , Heinze , T. , and Pischinger , S. Supercritical Fuel State as Solution for Spark Ignition Engines with LPG Direct Injection MTZ worldwide 78 09 2017
- Distaso , E. , Amirante , R. , Cassone , E. , De Palma , P. et al. Analysis of the Combustion Process in a Lean-Burning Turbulent Jet Ignition Engine Fueled with Methane Energy Conversion and Management 223 2020 113257