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Catalyst-Heating Operation in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine: Operating Strategy Calibration, Fuel Reactivity, and Fuel Oxygen Effects
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on September 21, 2021 by SAE International in United States
Compliance with future ultra-low nitrogen oxide regulations with diesel engines requires the fastest possible heating of the exhaust aftertreatment system to its proper operating temperature upon cold starting. Late post injections are commonly integrated into catalyst-heating operating strategies. This experimental study provides insight into the complex interactions between the injection-strategy calibration and the tradeoffs between exhaust heat and pollutant emissions. Experiments are performed with certification diesel fuel and blends of diesel fuel with butylal and hexyl hexanoate. Further analyses of experimental data provide insight into fuel reactivity and oxygen content as potential enablers for improved catalyst-heating operation.
A statistical design-of-experiments approach is developed to investigate a wide range of injection strategy calibrations at three different intake dilution levels. Thermodynamic and exhaust emissions measurements are taken using a new medium-duty, single-cylinder research engine. Analysis of the results provides insight into the effects of exhaust gas recirculation, oxygenated fuel blends, and fuel reactivity on exhaust heat and pollutant emissions. Late-cycle heat release is an important factor in determining exhaust temperatures. Intake dilution and fuel properties certainly affect late-cycle heat release, but the methods applied in this work are not sufficient to reproduce or explain the mechanisms by which improved fuel cetane rating promotes operation with hotter exhaust and lower pollutant emissions.