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Fuel Effects on Advanced Compression Ignition Load Limits

Journal Article
ISSN: 2641-9637, e-ISSN: 2641-9645
Published September 21, 2021 by SAE International in United States
Fuel Effects on Advanced Compression Ignition Load Limits
Citation: Powell, T. and Szybist, J., "Fuel Effects on Advanced Compression Ignition Load Limits," SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 4(2):570-582, 2022,
Language: English


In order to maximize the efficiency of light-duty gasoline engines, the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Co-Optima) initiative from the U.S. Department of Energy is investigating multi-mode combustion strategies. Multi-mode combustion can be describe as using conventional spark-ignited combustion at high loads, and at the part-load operating conditions, various advanced compression ignition (ACI) strategies are being investigated to increase efficiency. Of particular interest to the Co-Optima initiative is the extent to which optimal fuel properties and compositions can enable higher efficiency ACI combustion over larger portions of the operating map. Extending the speed-load range of these ACI modes can enable greater part-load efficiency improvements for multi-mode combustion strategies. In this manuscript, we investigate fuel effects for six different fuels, including four with a research octane number (RON) of 98 and differing fuel chemistries, iso-octane, and a market representative E10 fuel, on the load limits for two different ACI strategies: spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) and partial fuel stratification-gasoline compression ignition (PFS-GCI) operation. Experimental results show that limits to intake boosting limit high load operation for most fuels, but high smoke emissions for high particulate matter index (PMI) fuels under SACI conditions could also be a limitation. Contrastingly, low load is limited by combustion efficiency, but these effects have more pronounced variation with fuel chemistry for PFS-GCI than with SACI. Additional, distinct effects affecting autoignition timing and peak heat release at higher speeds were identified for fuels having different low temperature heat release (LTHR) propensities for both ACI modes.