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Impact of Materials Properties on Higher-Temperature Engine Operation
ISSN: 2641-9637, e-ISSN: 2641-9645
Published September 21, 2021 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Mills, Z., Finney, C., Haynes, J., Trofimov, A. et al., "Impact of Materials Properties on Higher-Temperature Engine Operation," SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 4(2):448-461, 2022, https://doi.org/10.4271/2021-01-1142.
We examine the effects on materials temperatures and engine efficiency via simulations of engines operating at temperatures which exceed the thermal limits of today’s materials. Potential focus areas include high-speed, high-load operation (in the fuel-enrichment zone) as well as conditions of selective cooling at lower speeds and loads. We focus on a light-duty DISI and a heavy-duty CI engine using GT-Power. Temperature distributions within the head, block, piston, and valves were obtained from 3D FEA simulations coupled with 1D GT-Power representations of the engine’s gas flow and combustion regions. We use experimentally measured thermal properties of current commercial alloys for specific engine components, as well as candidate developmental alloys with improved temperature tolerance, to gauge the effects of materials properties on engine performance, particularly focusing on operating areas where materials which can withstand higher temperatures can enable intensified combustion conditions and increased specific output. The outcome of this work is guidance on materials selection targets and benefits as OEMs meet engine-performance needs in the coming decades, to include Class 8 line-haul freight vehicles with reduced emissions, as well as design of future near net zero-carbon light-duty range extenders for more rapid electrification of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles.