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Emissions from NRMM Vehicles in Real Operating Conditions in Relation to the Number of Vehicles in Use in the Poznan City Agglomeration
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on September 15, 2020 by SAE International in United States
Non-Road machines constitutes a large group of machines designed for various tasks and mainly using CI engines for propulsion. This category includes vehicles with drive systems of a maximum capacity of several kilowatts as well as with drives with a capacity of up to thousands of kilowatts depending on the purpose of the machine. Within this group, mobile machines referred to as NRMM (Non-Road Mobile Machinery) stand out. Numerous studies of scientific institutions in Europe and around the world have proven the differences between the exhaust emissions tested in type approval tests and the actual emissions in this group of vehicles. They result from differences in operating points (crankshaft speed and load) of engines during their operation. A big problem is also their considerable age and degree of wear. Approval standards themselves are less stringent than those of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs), although the engines have similar design and performance. Selected NRMM vehicles were tested with the PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement System) apparatus, which enabled measurement of both gaseous (CO, HC, NOx) and solid exhaust components (PM and PN) contained in the exhaust gases. Information from the exhaust mass flow meter and instantaneous operating conditions of the combustion engine from the CAN network made it possible to determine the exhaust emission values. The obtained emission values were compared with other vehicles of this category, used at construction sites in the Poznań agglomeration, which was then used to determine the level of their emission as well as its percentage share in comparison with other means of transport.