This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Modeling of Soot Deposition and Active Regeneration in Wall-flow DPF and Experimental Validation
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 15, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Growing concerns about the emissions of internal combustion engines have forced the adoption of aftertreatment devices to reduce the adverse impact of diesel engines on health and environment.
Diesel particulate filters are considered as an effective means to reduce the particle emissions and comply with the regulations. Research activity in this field focuses on filter configuration, materials and aging, on understanding the variation of soot layer properties during time, on defining of the optimal strategy of DPF management for on-board control applications.
A model was implemented in order to simulate the filtration and regeneration processes of a wall-flow particulate filter, taking into account the emission characteristic of the engine, whose architecture and operating conditions deeply affect the size distribution of soot particles. The model is based on a lumped parameter approach able to be used for on-board monitoring and control, in order to provide knowledge of DPF status versus time.
The filtration model is based on the ‘unit collector’ and fluid dynamic approaches to predict trapped mass and filter backpressure evolution during time. The model accounts for the size distribution of soot particles in the engine exhaust and for its impact on the DPF properties during loading process. Regeneration model is based on a O2 non-catalytic oxidation approach of the trapped soot.
The model was applied to simulate the loading/regeneration processes of a wall-flow DPF under real engine operation condition. Experimental tests were carried out and measurements were used to validate the proposed model.
CitationChiavola, O., Chiatti, G., Cavallo, D., Mancaruso, E. et al., "Modeling of Soot Deposition and Active Regeneration in Wall-flow DPF and Experimental Validation," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-2180, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-2180.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
- Johnson, T., and Joshi, A. , “Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions,” SAE Int. J. Engines 11(6):1307-1330, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0329.
- Liu, G.Z., and Munnannur, A. , Future Diesel Engines. Design and Development of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines, Energy, Environment (Singapore: Springer, 2019), 887-914, doi:10.1007/978-981-15-0970-4_24.
- Joshi, A. , “Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions,” SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 1(2):734-761, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0314.
- Hyeonoh, K., and Kazuhiro, Y. , “Simulation on soot deposition in in-wall and on-wall catalyzed diesel particulate filters,” Catalysis Today 332:89-93, 2019.
- Fiebig, M., Wiartalla, A., Holderbaum, B., and Kiesow, S. , “Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions,” J Occup Med Toxicol 9(6), 2014, doi:10.1186/1745-6673-9-6.
- Ummaleti, L.S.S., Ganipineni, J.R., and Konuru, S.R. , “Impact of Piston Geometry on Diesel Engine Performance, Emissions and Combustion,” International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering 8(2):2277-3878, 2019.
- Kontses, A., Dimaratos, A., Keramidas, C., Williams, R. et al. , “Effects of fuel properties on particulate emissions of diesel cars equipped with diesel particulate filters,” Fuel 255, 2019, doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115879.
- Chiatti, G., Chiavola, O., and Palmieri, F. , “Impact on Combustion and Emissions of Jet Fuel as Additive in Diesel Engine Fueled with Blends of Petrol Diesel, Renewable Diesel and Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel,” Energies 12:2488, 2019.
- Kumar, C., Rana, K.B., Tripathi, B., and Nayyar, A. , “Properties and effects of organic additives on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine: a comprehensive review,” Environ Sci Pollut Res. 25:22475-22498, 2018, doi:10.1007/s11356-018-2537-6.
- Sahoo, R.R., and Jain, A. , “Experimental analysis of nanofuel additives with magnetic fuel conditioning for diesel engine performance and emissions,” Fuel 236:365-372, 2019, doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2018.09.027.
- Lao, C.T., Akroyd, J., and Eaves, N. , “Modelling of secondary particulate emissions during the regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filters,” Energy Proc. 142:3560-3565, 2017.
- Lao, C.T., Akroyd, J., Eaves, N., Smith, A. et al. , “Modelling particle mass and particle number emissions during the active regeneration of diesel particulate filters,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 37:4831-4838, 2019.
- Wang, Y., and Kamp, C. , “The Effects of Mid-Channel Ash Plug on DPF Pressure Drop,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0966, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0966.
- Yamamoto, K., and Tajima, Y. , “Mechanism for pressure drop variation caused by filtration of diesel particulates,” International Journal of Engine Research, 2019, doi:10.1177/1468087419853738.
- Koltsakis, G., Haralampous, O.A., and Depcik, C. , “Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Modeling,” Rev. Chem. Eng. 29:1-61, 2013.
- Meng, Z., Fang, J., Pu, Y., Yan, Y. et al. , “Experimental Study on the Influence of DPF Micropore Structure and Particle Property on Its Filtration Process,” J. Combust., 2016.
- Uenishi, T., Tanaka, E., Fukuma, T., Kusaka, J. et al. , “A Quasi Two Dimensional Model of Transport Phenomena in Diesel Particulate Filters - The Effects of Particle Diameter on the Pressure Drop in DPF Regeneration Mode,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-2282, 2016, https//doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-2282.
- Uenishi, T., Tanaka, E., Shigeno, G., Fukuma, T. et al. , “A Quasi Two Dimensional Model of Transport Phenomena in Diesel Particulate Filters - The Effects of Particle and Wall Pore Diameter on the Pressure Drop,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2010, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-2010.
- Bermúdez, V., Serrano, J.R., Piqueras, P., and Sanchis, E.J. , “On the Impact of Particulate M atter Distribution on Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Particulate Filters,” Appl. Sci. 7:234, 2017.
- Gong, J., and Rutland, C.J. , “PDF-Based Heterogeneous Multiscale Filtration Model,” Environ. Sci. Technol 49(8):4963-4970, 2015.
- Gong, J., Stewart, M.L., Zelenyuk, A., Strzelec, A. et al. , “Importance of filter’s microstructure in dynamic filtration modeling of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs): Inhomogeneous porosity and pore size distribution,” Chemical Eng. J. 338:15-26, 2018.
- Yang, S., Deng, C., Gao, Y., and He, Y. , “Diesel particulate filter design simulation: A review,” Adv. Mech. Eng. 8:1-14, 2016.
- Bai, S., Tang, J., and Wang, G. , “Soot loading estimation model and passive regeneration characteristics of DPF system for heavy-duty engine,” Appl. Ther. Eng. 100:1292-1298, 2016.
- Chen, P., and Wang, J. , “Control-oriented model for integrated diesel engine and aftertreatment systems thermal management,” Control Engineering Practice 22:81-93, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.conengprac.2013.09.009.
- D’Aniello, F., Rossomando, B., and Arsie, I. , “Development and Experimental Validation of a Control Oriented Model of a Catalytic DPF,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0985, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0985.
- Chiatti, G., Chiavola, O., and Sirhan, N. , “Impact of particulate size during deep loading on DPF management,” Applied Sciences 9:3075, 2019, doi:10.3390/app9153075.
- Bisset, E., and Shadman, F. , “Thermal Regenerartion of Diesel particulate Monolithic Filters,” Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 1985.
- Konstandopoulos, A.G., Kostoglou, M., Skaperdas, E., Papaioannou, E. et al. , “Fundamental Studies of Diesel Particulate Filters: Transient Loading, Regeneration and Aging,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1016, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-1016.
- Konstandopoulos, A.G., Kostoglou, M., Vlachos, N., Vlachos, N. et al. , “Progress in Diesel Particulate Filter Simulation,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0946, 2005, https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-0946.
- Chiatti, G., Chiavola, O., and Falcucci, G. , “DPF Soot Loading and Regeneration: a Lumped Parameter Approach,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-0441, 2008, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-0441.
- Opris, C.N., and Johnson, J.H. , “A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Flow and Filtration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap,” SAE Technical Paper 980545, 1998, https://doi.org/10.4271/980545.
- Chiatti, G., Chiavola, O., and Falcucci, G. , “Soot Morphology Effects on DPF Performance,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1279, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-1279.
- Kandylas, I.P., and Koltsakis, G.C. , “NO2-Assisted Regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filters: A Modeling Study,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 41:2115-2123, 2002.
- Kladopoulou, E.A., Yang, S.L., Johnson, J.H., Parker, G.G. et al. , “A Study Describing the Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters During Loading and Regeneration - A Lumped Parameter Model for Control Applications,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0842, 2003, https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-0842.
- Ohara, E., Mizuno, Y., Miyairi, Y., Mizutani, T. et al. , “Filtration Behavior of Diesel Particulate Filters,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0921, 2007, https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-0921.
- Law, M.C., and Garner, C.P. , “The effects of soot properties on the regeneration behavior of wall-flow diesel particulate filters,” Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs. 218:1513-1524, 2004.
- Hinterberger, C., Olesen, M., and Kaiser, R. , “3D Simulation of Soot Loading and Regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filter Systems,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1143, 2007, https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-1143.