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Evaluation of a Low-Metals, Non-Petrochemical Coke for Use in Automotive Friction Materials
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on October 05, 2020 by SAE International in United States
A study was performed to compare the performance of automotive friction elements, each manufactured with one of two different coke fillers. Coke #1 is a conventional calcined petroleum coke, and coke #2 a proprietary, calcined coke manufactured from a non-petrochemical feedstock. Subject coke materials were fully characterized, physically and chemically. Both coke materials are similar in their respective physical properties, including morphology, hardness, and crush strength. However, there is a significant difference in the trace metal content of the two materials, with coke #1 containing a higher content of sulfur, calcium, iron, nickel, and vanadium than coke #2. Nickel and vanadium are considered potential environmental hazards. Initial friction element evaluation was performed using the J661 Brake Lining Quality Test Procedure (Chase Test). Ultimately each coke material was formulated into two different automotive brake elements. The element/pad configurations used were a small vehicle pad, FMSI # 8331-D1293, with a Toyota rotor 43512-06105, and a PU-Truck/SUV vehicle pad, FMSI # 7652-D784, using an AC Delco 177-1038 rotor. Comprehensive dynamometer testing was performed on all friction elements. Test results show that the friction materials, each containing one of the subject coke fillers, behaved similarly, indicating that further road testing and evaluation is warranted.