This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Direction Specific Analysis of Psychoacoustics Parameters inside Car Cockpit: A Novel Tool for NVH and Sound Quality
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 30, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Event: 11th International Styrian Noise, Vibration & Harshness Congress: The European Automotive Noise Conference
Psychoacoustics parameters are widely employed in automotive field for objective evaluation of Sound Quality (SQ) of vehicle cabins and their components. The standard approach relies on binaural recordings from which numerical values and curves are calculated. In addition, head-locked binaural listening playback can be performed. The Virtual Reality (VR) technology recently started to diffuse also in automotive field, bringing new possibilities for enhanced and immersive listening sessions, thanks to the usage of massive microphone arrays instead of binaural microphones.
In this paper, we combine both solutions: the principal SQ parameters are derived from multichannel recordings. This allows computing a map of direction-dependent values of SQ parameters. The acquisition system consists in a spherical microphone array with 32 capsules and a multiple-lens camera for capturing a panoramic equirectangular background image. The audio recording is encoded into High Order Ambisonics (HOA) format for being compared with a classic omnidirectional microphone and into Spatial PCM Sampling (SPS) format for producing 360° equirectangular color maps. The SPS encoding is used to plot over the background image the distribution of SPL values in dB (A) and of the SQ parameters: by adding to them the directional information, it results into a novel 360° diagnostic tool for localizing the most annoying sources.
Furthermore, the playback of the HOA soundtrack can be performed both on a loudspeaker rig inside an Ambisonics listening room or on binaural headphones attached to a Head Mounted Display (HMD), benefiting from head-tracking and personalized Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs), allowing to make quick subjective evaluations with a degree of realism unattainable with the older static binaural approach.
CitationPinardi, D., Ebri, L., Belicchi, C., Farina, A. et al., "Direction Specific Analysis of Psychoacoustics Parameters inside Car Cockpit: A Novel Tool for NVH and Sound Quality," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-1547, 2020.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
- Tsuge, K., Kanamaru, K., Kido, T., and Masuda, N. , “A Study of Noise Invehicle Passenger Compartment during Acceleration,” SAE Technical Paper 850965, 1985, https://doi.org/10.4271/850965.
- Genuit, K. , “Investigation and Simulation of Vehicle Noise Using the Binaural Measurement,” SAE Technical Paper 870959, 1987, https://doi.org/10.4271/870959.
- Goetchius, G., Ketelhut, C., Smallwood, B., and Eaton, C. , “Subjective Evaluation of NVH CAE Model Predictions Using an Operator-in-the-Loop Driving Simulator,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1590, 2001, https://doi.org/10.4271/2001-01-1590.
- Gonzalez, A., Ferrera, M., de Diego, M., Piñero, G. et al. , “Sound Quality of Low-Frequency and Car Engine Noises after Active Noise Control,” Journal of Sound and Vibration 265:663-679, 2003.
- Binelli, M., Pinardi, D., Nili, T., and Farina, A. , “Individualized HRTF for Playing VR Videos with Ambisonics Spatial Audio on HMDs,” in AES International Conference on Audio for Virtual and Augmented Reality, 2018.
- Meyer, J., and Elko, G. , “A Highly Scalable Spherical Microphone Array Based on an Orthonormal Decomposition of the Soundfield,” Proc. on IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) 2:1781-1784, 2002.
- Gerzon, M.A. , “Ambisonics. Part Two: Studio Techniques,” Studio Sound 17(10):60, 1975.
- Farina, A. , “Explicit Formulas for High Order Ambisonics,” Aug. 2017, http://www.angelofarina.it/Aurora/HOA_explicit_formulas.htm.
- Nachbar, C., Zotter, F., and Deleflie, E. , “Ambix—A Suggested Ambisonics Format,” in Ambisonics Simposium, 2011.
- Farina, A., Amendola, A., Chiesi, L., Capra, A. et al. , “Spatial PCM Sampling: A New Method for Sound Recording and Playback,” in 52nd International Conference: Sound Field Control-Engineering and Perception, 2013.
- McCormack, L., Delikaris-Manias, S., Farina, A., Pinardi, D. et al. , “Real-Time Conversion of Sensor Array Signals into Spherical Harmonic Signals with Applications to Spatially Localised Sub-Band Sound-Field Analysis,” in 144th AES Convention, 2018.
- Farina, A., Pinardi, D., Binelli, M., Ebri, M. et al. , “Virtual Reality for Subjective Assessment of Sound Quality in Cars,” in 144th AES Convention, 2018.
- Zwicker, E. , Psychoakustik (Berlin: Springer, 1982).
- Zwicker, E. , “Zur Unterteilung Des hörbaren Frequenzbereichs in Frequenzgruppen (Division of the Audible Frequency Range in Critical Bands),” Acustica 10:185, 1960.
- Fastl, H., and Zwicker, E. , Psychoacoustics-Facts and Models Third Edition (Berlin: Springer, 2007).
- ISO 532-1:2017 , “Acoustics—Methods for Calculating Loudness—Part 1: Zwicker Method.”
- DIN 45631/A1:2010 , “Calculation of Loudness Level and Loudness from the Sound Spectrum—Zwicker Method—Amendment 1: Calculation of the Loudness of Time-Variant Sound; with CD-ROM.”
- DIN 45631:1991 , “Procedure for Calculating Loudness Level and Loudness.”
- DIN 45692:2009 , “Measurement Technique for the Simulation of the Auditory Sensation of Sharpness.”
- Widmann, U. , “Untersuchungen zur Schärfe und zur Lästigkeit von Rauschen unterschiedlicher Spektralverteilung,” in Fortschritte der Akustik, DAGA’93, DPG-GmbH, Bad Honnef, 644-647, 1993.
- S. I. R. C. (SIRC) , “MATLAB Codes—Calculating the Metrics,” https://www.salford.ac.uk/research/sirc/research-groups/acoustics/psychoacoustics/sound-quality-making-products-sound-better/accordion/sound-quality-testing/matlab-codes.
- Costalunga, A., Tripodi, C., Ebri, L., Vizzaccaro, M. et al. “Experimental Results on Active Road Noise Cancellation in Car Interior,” in 144th AES Convention, May 2018.