This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Evaluating Drivers’ Preferences and Understanding of Powertrain and Advanced Driver Assistant Systems Symbols for Current and Future Vehicles
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
With the dramatic increase in vehicle technology, the availability of a wide range of powertrains, and the development of advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS), instrument cluster interfaces have become more complex, increasing the demand on drivers. Understanding the needs and preferences of a diverse group of drivers is essential for the development of digital instrument cluster interfaces that improve driver’s understanding of critical information about the vehicle. This study investigated drivers’ understanding and preferences related to powertrain and ADAS symbols presented on instrument clusters. Participants answered questions that evaluated nine symbol’s comprehension, familiarity, and helpfulness. Then, participants were presented with information from the owner’s manual for each symbol and responded if the information changed their understanding of the symbol. Lastly, participants rated their need for more information to understand the symbols and shared their preferences about how the automotive interface could help them better understand the symbols. Teen drivers (N=30), normal drivers (N=20), driving rehabilitation specialists (N=20), and automotive engineering students (N=48) participated in this study. When comparing the groups’ performance on the comprehension testing, driving rehabilitation specialists had the best performance. Teen drivers had the poorest performance. Symbols with an implied or arbitrary icon-function relationship demonstrated poorer comprehension for all participant groups. Symbols with a direct icon-function relationship received higher comprehension scores and helpfulness ratings independent of previous exposure. Symbols considered less helpful received higher ratings on the need for additional information, suggesting that drivers need additional information to understand the symbol when the symbol meaning is not clear. Automotive engineering students and normal drivers reported being considerably less satisfied with the information presented on the dashboard of their vehicles. The results of this study may help when developing new vehicle interfaces, ensuring that indicators and warnings are presented in a way that aid both inexperienced and experienced drivers.
CitationSchwambach, B., Brooks, J., Mims, L., Rosopa, P. et al., "Evaluating Drivers’ Preferences and Understanding of Powertrain and Advanced Driver Assistant Systems Symbols for Current and Future Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-1203, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-1203.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
- Camacho, M.J., Steiner, B.A., and Berson, B.L. , “Icons vs. Alphanumerics in Pilot-Vehicle Interfaces,” Proceedings of the Human Factors Society Annual Meeting 34(1):11-15, 1990.
- Heard, E.A. , “Symbol Study-1972,” SAE Technical Paper 740304, 1974, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/740304.
- Wickens, C.D., Hollands, J.G., Banbury, S., and Parasuraman, R. , Engineering Psychology and Human Performance (Psychology Press, 2015).
- Sanders, M. and Cormick, J.M.C. , Human Factors in Engineering and Design (New York: Mc-GHill, 1993).
- Holland, D. , Dashboards (Phaidon Press, 1994).
- Moore, W. , The Dashboard Book: American Automobile Dashboards 1899-1969 (CreateSpace Publishing, 2016).
- SAE Standard , “Symbols for Motor Vehicle-Controls, Indicators and Tell- Tales,” SAE J1028. Approved September 1974.
- Frank, D., Koenig, N., and Lendholt, R. , “Identification of Symbols for Motor Vehicle Controls,” SAE Transactions 2153-2161, 1973.
- SAE International Surface Vehicle Standard . “Symbols for Motor Vehicle-Controls, Indicators and Tell- Tales,” SAE Standard 1048. Revised March 1980.
- Kim, S.H., Sabando, J.F., and Kim, W.H. , “An Ecological Interface Design Approach for Developing Integrated and Advanced in-Vehicle Information System,” Indian Journal of Science and Technology 9(16):92038, 2016.
- SAE International Surface Vehicle Standard . “Symbols for Motor Vehicle-Controls, Indicators and Tell- Tales,” SAE Standard 2402. Revised January 2010.
- International Standards Organization , “Road Vehicles - Symbols for Controls, Indicators and Tell-Tales,” ISO 2575, Issued 2010.
- Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard , “49 CFR 571.101 Standard 101; Controls and Displays,” Published October 1, 2011, https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/CFR-2011-title49-vol6/CFR-2011-title49-vol6-sec571-101/summary.
- United Nations Economic Commission for Europe , “Addendum 120: Regulation No. 121,” Published November 12, 2015, https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs/2015/R121r2e.pdf.
- Isherwood, S.J., McDougall, S.J.P., and Curry, M.B. , “Icon Identification in Context: The Changing Role of Icon Characteristics with User Experience,” Human Factors 49(3):465-476, 2007.
- Stotts, D.B. , “The Usefulness of Icons on the Computer Interface: Effect of Graphical Abstraction and Functional Representation on Experienced and Novice Users,” Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 42(5):453-457, 1998.
- McDougall, S.J.P., de Bruijn, O., and Curry, M.B. , “Exploring the Effects of Icon Characteristics on User performance: The Role of Icon Concreteness, Complexity, and Distinctiveness,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 6(4) (2000): 291.
- Scott, D. , “Visual Search in Modern Human-Computer Interfaces,” Behaviour & Information Technology 12(3):174-189, 1993.
- Regan, M.A., Lee, J.D., and Young, K. , Driver Distraction: Theory, Effects, and Mitigation (CRC Press, 2008).
- Saunby, C.S., Farber, E.I., and DeMello, J. , “Driver Understanding and Recognition of Automotive ISO Symbols,” SAE Technical Paper No. 880056, 1988, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/880056.
- Campbell, J.L., Hoffmeister, D.H., Kiefer, R.J., Selke, D.J. et al. , “Comprehension Testing of Active Safety Symbols,” SAE Transactions 197-203, 2004.
- Jack, D.D., Heard, E.A., and Pew, D.D. , “SAE Research Study on the Interpretability of ISO Vehicle Control Symbols,” SAE, June 9, 1970.
- Jack, D.D. , “Identification of Controls-A Study of Symbols,” SAE Transactions 805-809, 1972.
- Eichelberger, A.H. and McCartt, A.T. , “Toyota Drivers' Experiences with Dynamic Radar Cruise Control, Pre-Collision System, and Lane-Keeping Assist,” Journal of Safety Research 56:67-73, 2016.
- Gibson, Z., Butterfield, J., and Marzano, A. , “User-Centered Design Criteria in Next Generation Vehicle Consoles,” Procedia CIRP 55:260-265, 2016.
- SAE International Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice , “Process for Comprehension Testing of In-Vehicle Icons,” SAE Standard J2830, Issued July 2008.
- International Standards Organization , “Procedures for the Development and Testing of Public Information Symbols,” ISO 9186, Issued 1989.
- Schwambach, B., Brooks, J., Mims, L., Rosopa, P., and Jenkins, C. , “Teen Drivers’ Understanding of Instrument Cluster Indicators and Warning Lights from a Gasoline, a Hybrid and an Electric Vehicle,” SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-1199, 2020.
- Lee, J.D. , “Technology and Teen Drivers,” Journal of Safety Research 38(2):203-213, 2007.
- The Association for Driver Rehabilitation Specialists , “Rehabilitation Specialists (CDRS),” Accessed November 7, 2019. https://www.aded.net/page/210.
- Toyota Motor Corporation , “2014 RAV4 Through Nov. 2013 Prod Owner’s Manual (OM42869U),” Toyota Motor Corporation, Ann Arbor, MI, 2014.
- Toyota Motor Corporation , “2016 RAV4 HV Owner’s Manual (OM42A56U),” Toyota Motor Corporation, Ann Arbor, MI, 2016.
- Toyota Motor Corporation , “2014 RAV4 EV Owner’s Manual (OM4200U),” Toyota Motor Corporation, Ann Arbor, MI, 2014.
- SAE International Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice , “Process for Comprehension Testing of In-Vehicle Icons,” SAE Standard J2830, revised June 2016.
- International Standards Organization , “Procedures for the Development and Testing of Public Information Symbols,” ISO 9186-1, issued 2014.
- Toyota Motor Corporation , 2018 RAV4 HV Owner’s Manual (OM42B81U) (Ann Arbor, MI: Toyota Motor Corporation, 2018).
- Toyota Motor Corporation , “2018 RAV4 Owner’s Manual (OM0R012U),” Toyota Motor Corporation, Ann Arbor, MI, 2018.
- Johnson, M. , Drive Right (Prentice-Hall, 2002).