This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Evaluation of Trajectory Based Combustion Control for Electrical Free Piston Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Previously, the authors have proposed a novel strategy called trajectory based combustion control for the free piston engine (FPE) where the shape of the piston trajectory between top and bottom dead centers is used as a control input to modulate the chemical kinetics of the fuel-air mixture inside the combustion chamber. It has been shown that in case of a hydraulic free piston engine (HFPE), using active motion control, the piston inside the combustion chamber can be forced to track any desired trajectory, despite the absence of a crankshaft, providing reliable starting and stable operation. This allows the use of optimized piston trajectory for every operating point which minimizes fuel consumption and emissions. In this work, this concept is extended to an electrical free piston engine (EFPE) as a modular power source. A dynamic model of a linear electrical free piston engine unit has been developed which consists of a single phase linear generator driven by a single cylinder engine. The linear generator unit not only provides the required electromagnetic force to ensure precise trajectory tracking for the piston in the combustion chamber, but also efficiently extracts the combustion energy to charge the battery. The concept has been experimentally validated in a hardware-in-loop setup. The combustion data corresponding to a predetermined piston trajectory is obtained from a controlled trajectory rapid compression and expansion machine (CT-RCEM) and the dynamic model is used to evaluate the electrical output corresponding to the combustion data.
CitationNahin, M., Tripathi, A., and Sun, Z., "Evaluation of Trajectory Based Combustion Control for Electrical Free Piston Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-1149, 2020.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
- USDOE and EIA , “US Transportation Statistics 2017 Annual Report,” 2017.
- Tanaka, Y., Hiyoshi, R., Takemura, S., Ikeda, Y. et al. , “A Study of a Compression Ratio Control Mechanism for a Multiple-Link Variable Compression Ratio Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-3547, 2007, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-3547.
- Schwaderlapp, M., Habermann, K., and Yapici, K.I. , “Variable Compression Ratio - A Design Solution for Fuel Economy Concepts,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-1103, 2002, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2002-01-1103.
- Van Blarigan, P. , “Advanced Hydrogen Fueled Internal Combustion Engines,” Energy and Fuels 12(1):72-77, 1998.
- Van Blarigan, P., Paradiso, N., and Goldsborough, S. , “Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition with a Free Piston: A New Approach to Ideal Otto Cycle Performance,” SAE Technical Papers 982484, 1998, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/982484.
- Zhang, C. and Sun, Z. , “Using Variable Piston Trajectory to Reduce Engine-Out Emissions,” Appl. Energy 170:403-414, May 2016.
- Li, K., Zhang, C., and Sun, Z. , “Precise Piston Trajectory Control for a Free Piston Engine,” Control Eng. Pract. 34:30-38, 2015.
- Zhang, C., Li, K., and Sun, Z. , “Modeling of Piston Trajectory-Based HCCI Combustion Enabled by a Free Piston Engine,” Appl. Energy 139(x):313-326, 2015.
- Pateras, P.R. , “Motor-Compressor Apparatus,” U.S. Patent 1,657,641, Jan. 31, 1928.
- Aichlmayr, H.T., Kittelson, D.B., and Zachariah, M.R. , “Design Considerations, Modeling , and Analysis of Micro-Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Free-Piston Engines,” University of Minnesota, 2002.
- Mikalsen, R. and Roskilly, A.P. , “A Review of Free-Piston Engine History and Applications,” Applied Thermal Engineering 27(14-15):2339-2352, 2007.
- Achten, P.A.J., Van Den Oever, J.P.J., Potma, J., and Vael, G.E.M. , “Horsepower with Brains: The Design of the CHIRON Free Piston Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2545, 2000, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-2545.
- Hibi, A. and Ito, T. , “Fundamental Test Results of a Hydraulic Free Piston Internal Combustion Engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D: J. Automob. Eng. 218(10):1149-1157, Oct. 2004.
- Tikkanen, S. and Vilenius, M. , “Control of Dual Hydraulic Free Piston Engine,” Int. J. Veh. Auton. Syst. 4(1):3, 2006.
- Hung, N.B. and Lim, O. , “A Review of Free-Piston Linear Engines,” Appl. Energy 178(x):78-97, 2016.
- Li, K., Sadighi, A., and Sun, Z. , “Active Motion Control of a Hydraulic Free Piston Engine,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics 19(4):1148-1159, 2014.
- Johnson, T.A., Leick, M.T., and Moses, R.W. , “Experimental Evaluation of a Prototype Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA) System,” 2015.
- Goto, S. et al. , “Development of Free Piston Engine Linear Generator System Part 1 - Investigation of Fundamental Characteristics,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1203, 2014, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-1203.
- Moriya, K., Goto, S., Akita, T., Kosaka, H. et al. , “Development of Free Piston Engine Linear Generator System Part3 - Novel Control Method of Linear Generator for to Improve Efficiency and Stability,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0685, 2016, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0685.
- Sadighi, A., Li, K., and Sun, Z. , “A Comparative Study of Permanent Magnet Linear Alternator and Hydraulic Free-Piston Engines,” in ASME 2011 Dyn. Syst. Control Conf. Bath/ASME Symp. Fluid Power Motion Control. DSCC 2011, vol. 1, 137-144, 2011.
- Wang, X., Chen, F., Zhu, R., Yang, G. et al. , “A Review of the Design and Control of Free-Piston Linear Generator,” Energies 11(8):1-21, 2018.
- Famouri, P. et al. , “Design and Testing of a Novel Linear Alternator and Engine System for Remote Electrical Power Generation,” IEEE Eng. Soc. Winter Meet. 1:108-112, 1999.
- Goto, S., Moriya, K., Kosaka, H., Akita, T. et al. , “Development of Free Piston Engine Linear Generator System Part 2 - Investigation of Control System for Generator,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1193, 2014, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-1193.
- Feng, H., Song, Y., Zuo, Z., Shang, J. et al. , “Stable Operation and Electricity Generating Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Free Piston Engine Linear Generator: Simulation and Experiments,” Energies 8(2):765-785, 2015.
- Xu, Z. and Chang, S. , “Prototype Testing and Analysis of a Novel Internal Combustion Linear Generator Integrated Power System,” Appl. Energy 87(4):1342-1348, 2010.
- Jia, B., Tian, G., Feng, H., Zuo, Z. et al. , “An Experimental Investigation into the Starting Process of Free-Piston Engine Generator,” Appl. Energy 157:798-804, 2015.
- Kim, J., Bae, C., and Kim, G. , “The Effects of Spark Timing and Equivalence Ratio on Spark-Ignition Linear Engine Operation with Liquefied Petroleum Gas,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0424, 2012, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-0424.
- Pavel, N., Michal, Š., and Onděej, V. , “Modeling and Control of Free-Piston Generator,” IFAC Proc. Vol. 37(14):617-622, 2004.
- Zhang, C. et al. , “A Free-Piston Linear Generator Control Strategy for Improving Output Power,” Energies 11(1):1-21, 2018.
- Tripathi, A., Li, K., Zhang, C., and Sun, Z. , “Modeling and Control of Controlled Trajectory Rapid Compression Expansion Machine,” Proc. Am. Control Conf. 2016:3304-3309, July 2016.
- Tripathi, A. and Sun, Z. , “A Controlled Trajectory Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine (CT-RCEM) for Chemical Kinetic Investigations,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 2019.
- Tripathi, A., Zhang, C., and Sun, Z. , “A Multizone Model of the Combustion Chamber Dynamics in a Controlled Trajectory Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine (CT-RCEM),” Appl. Energy 231:179-193, Dec. 2018.
- Tripathi, A., Dasrath, D., Sun, Z., Northrop, W. et al. , “Design and Control of a Controlled Trajectory Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics 24(4):1711-1722, Aug. 2019.
- Tripathi, A., Zhang, C., and Sun, Z. , “Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Auto-Ignition Combustion Dynamics,” in Dynamic Systems & Control Conference (DSCC), 2018.
- Saw, L.H., Somasundaram, K., Ye, Y., and Tay, A.A.O. , “Electro-Thermal Analysis of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery for Electric Vehicles,” J. Power Sources 249:231-238, 2014.
- Tremblay, O. , “Experimental Validation of a Battery Dynamic Model for EV Applications Experimental Validation of a Battery Dynamic Model for EV Applications,” in 24th Int. Batter. Hybrid Fuel Cell Electr. Veh. Symp. Exhib. 2009, EVS 24, vol. 3, 289-298, Oct. 2015.
- Aichlmayr, H.T. and Van Blarigan, P. , “Modeling and Experimental Characterization of a Permanent Magnet Linear Alternator for Free-Piston Engine applications,” in Proc. ASME 3rd Int. Conf. Energy Sustain. 2009, ES2009, vol. 1, 761-770, 2009.