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Impact of Active-Grille Shutter Position on Vehicle Air-Conditioning System Performance and Energy Consumption in Real World Conditions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
Active grille shutter (AGS) in a vehicle provides aerodynamic benefit at high vehicle speed by closing the front-end grille opening. At the same time, this causes lesser air flow through the cooling module which includes the condenser. This results in higher refrigerant pressure at the compressor outlet. Higher head pressure causes the compressor to work more thereby possibly negating the aerodynamic benefits towards vehicle power consumption. This paper uses a numerical method to quantify the power consumed by the vehicle in different scenarios and assesses the impact of AGS closure on vehicle energy consumption. The goal is to analyze the trade-off between the aerodynamic performance and the compressor power consumption at high vehicle speeds and mid-ambient conditions. These so called real world conditions represent high way driving at mid-ambient temperatures where the air-conditioning (AC) load is not heavy. AC system which includes the refrigerant loop and vehicle cabin is modeled using 1D methodology and its performance simulated at system level. AC system performance is analyzed under steady state as well as transient conditions. Power consumption by AC compressor (an output from AC system model), blower, etc. are inputs to a driveline model to calculate the fuel consumption. Fuel consumption values are compared by varying the blower setting, vehicle speed and ambient temperature to understand the overall system behavior. Both AC system and driveline models are run independent of each other and the information exchange is manual. The scope of the work is limited to AC System performance and vehicle energy consumption.