This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Optimal Aftertreatment Pre-Heat Strategy for Minimum Tailpipe NOx Around Green Zones
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Green zones are challenging problems for the thermal management systems of hybrid vehicles. This is because within the green zone the engine is turned off, and the only way to keep the aftertreatment system warm is lost. This means that there is a risk of leaving the green zone with a cold and ineffective aftertreatment system, resulting in high emissions.
A thermal management strategy that heats the aftertreatment system prior to turning off the engine, in an optimal way, to reduce the NOx emissions when the engine is restarted, is developed. The strategy is also used to evaluate under what conditions pre-heating is a suitable strategy, by evaluating the performance in simulations using a model of a heavy-duty diesel powertrain and scenario designed for this purpose.
The results show that, for the studied vehicle, pre-heating of the aftertreatment system is an effective strategy to reduce NOx for engine-off events shorter than two hours, and is most effective for engine off events of around 1.5 hours. The results also show that for engine-off events longer than two hours, pre-heating quickly becomes an inefficient strategy. At this point, ammonia storage when the engine is turned off is more important, and pre-heating can even make the results worse, since an increased SCR temperature results in lower ammonia storage before turning off the engine, which is detrimental for NOx conversion during the restart.
CitationHolmer, O., Willems, F., Blomgren, F., and Eriksson, L., "Optimal Aftertreatment Pre-Heat Strategy for Minimum Tailpipe NOx Around Green Zones," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0361, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-0361.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- DieselNet , “Emission Standards - European Union - Heavy-Duty Truck and Bus Engines,” www.dieselnet.com/standards/eu/hd.php, accessed 2020-01-10.
- European Commission , “Reducing CO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Vehicles,” ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/_vehicles/heavy_en, accessed 2020-01-10.
- Transport & Environment , “Low-Emission Zones Are a Success - But They Must Now Move to Zero-Emission Mobility,” www.transportenvironment.org/sites/te/files/publications/2019_09_Briefing_LEZ-ZEZ_final.pdf, accessed 2020-01-10.
- Prohaska, R., Konan, A., Kelly, K., and Lammert, M. , “Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development,” Technical report, National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO, 2016.
- Biswas, D., Ghosh, S., Sengupta, S., and Mukhopadhyay, S. , “A Predictive Supervisory Controller for an HEV Operating in a Zero Emission Zone,” in 2019 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo (ITEC), 2019, 1-6, IEEE.
- Soldo, J., Skugor, B., and Deur, J. , “Optimal Energy Management Control of a Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the Presence of Low Emission Zones,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1215, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1215.
- Serrao, L., Sciarretta, A., Grondin, O., Chasse, A. et al. , “Open Issues in Supervisory Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: A Unified Approach using Optimal Control Methods,” Oil & Gas Science and Technology-Revue d’IFP Energies nouvelles 68(1):23-33, 2013.
- Kum, D., Peng, H., and Bucknor, N.K. , “Supervisory Control of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Fuel and Emission Reduction,” Journal of dynamic systems, measurement, and control 133(6):061010, 2011.
- Willems, F., Spronkmans, S., and Kessels, J. , “Integrated Powertrain Control to Meet Low CO2 Emissions for a Hybrid Distribution Truck with SCR-DeNOx System,” in ASME 2011 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference and Bath/ASME Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, 2011, 907-912, American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection.
- Holmer, O., Blomgren, F., and Eriksson, L. , “Modeling of Engine Aftertreatment System Cooling for Hybrid Vehicles,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0989, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0989.
- Cloudt, R., Saenen, J., Eijnden, E., and Rojer, C. , “Virtual Exhaust Line for Model-based Diesel Aftertreatment Development,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0888, 2010, https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-0888.
- Holmer, O. and Eriksson, L. , “Modelling and Validation of Hybrid Heavy Duty Vehicles with Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems,” in Proceedings of the 58th Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 58), Reykjavik, Iceland, September 25-27, 2017, 138, 304-316, Linköping University Electronic Press.
- Chatterjee, D., Burkhardt, T., Rappe, T., Güthenke, A. et al. , “Numerical Simulation of DOC+DPF+SCR Systems: DOC Influence on SCR Performance,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 1(1):440-451, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-0867.
- Koebel, M., Elsener, M., and Kleemann, M. , “Urea-SCR: a Promising Technique to Reduce NOx Emissions from Automotive Diesel Engines,” Catalysis Today 59(3-4):335-345, 2000.
- Konstandopoulos, A., Kostoglou, M., Skaperdas, E., Papaioannou, E. et al. , “Fundamental Studies of Diesel Particulate Filters: Transient Loading, Regeneration and Aging,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1016, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-1016.
- Birkhold, F., Meingast, U., Wassermann, P., and Deutschmann, O. , “Analysis of the Injection of Urea-Water-Solution for Automotive SCR DeNOx-Systems: Modeling of Two-Phase Flow and Spray/Wall-Interaction,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0643, 2006, https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-0643.
- Wedlund, J. , Effect of Spray Characteristics on the Evaporation and Decomposition of a Urea-Water Solution (Master’s thesis, 2012).
- Grimler, H. , “Investigating Urea Vaporization in a Controlled Environment using Infrared Thermography,” Master’s thesis, 2015.
- van Helden, R., Verbeek, R., Willems, F., and van der Welle, R. , “Optimization of Urea SCR deNOx Systems for HD Diesel Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-0154, 2004, https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-0154.
- Eijnden, E., Cloudt, R., Willems, F., and Heijden, P. , “Automated Model Fit Tool for SCR Control and OBD Development,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1285, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-1285.
- Winkler, C., Flörchinger, P., Patil, M., Gieshoff, J. et al. , “Modeling of SCR DeNOx Catalyst - Looking at the Impact of Substrate Attributes,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0845, 2003, https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-0845.
- Scheuer, A., Votsmeier, M., Schuler, A., Gieshoff, J. et al. , “NH3-Slip Catalysts: Experiments Versus Mechanistic Modelling,” Topics in Catalysis 52(13-20):1847, 2009.
- Kraehnert, R. and Baerns, M. , “Kinetics of Ammonia Oxidation Over Pt Foil Studied in a Micro-Structured Quartz-Reactor,” Chemical Engineering Journal 137(2):361-375, 2008.