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CARB Low NOx Stage 3 Program - Modified Engine Calibration and Hardware Evaluations
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
With the conclusion of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Stage 1 Ultra-Low NOX (ULN) program, there continues to be a commitment for identifying potential pathways to demonstrate 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. The Stage 1 program focused on achieving the ULN levels on the heavy-duty regulatory cycles utilizing a turbo-compound engine which required the integration of novel catalyst technologies and a supplemental heat source. While the aftertreatment configuration provided a potential solution to meet the ULN target, a complicated approach with a greenhouse gas (GHG) penalty was required to overcome challenges from low temperature exhaust. A subsequent Stage 2 program was concerned with the development of a new low load test cycle and evaluating the trade-off between GHG and tailpipe NOX on the Stage 1 ULN solution. The current Stage 3 program focuses on both the regulatory cycles and the new low load cycle, but leverages a different engine architecture that is more representative of the broader heavy-duty industry to meet the Phase 2 GHG regulations and to simplify the ULN aftertreatment solution. Aftertreatment thermal management is a key aspect of achieving ULN on both the regulatory cycles and the low load cycle. Therefore, a more aggressive engine calibration was developed on the Stage 3 platform using the available engine actuators for aftertreatment heat up and thermal management. This modified calibration was then used to evaluate additional hardware technologies under steady-state and transient operation to assess the trade-offs between exhaust gas characteristics, emissions, and fuel consumption. A simple ranking system was applied to the transient results and with cylinder deactivation being selected to carry forward into the subsequent tasks of the Stage 3 ULN program.
CitationNeely, G., Sharp, C., and Rao, S., "CARB Low NOx Stage 3 Program - Modified Engine Calibration and Hardware Evaluations," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0318, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-0318.
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- California Air Resources Board , “Heavy-Duty Low NOX Program,” https://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/hdlownox/hdlownox.htm.
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- Sharp, C., Webb, C., Yoon, S., Carter, M., and Henry, C. , “Achieving Ultra Low NOx Emissions Levels with a 2017 Heavy-Duty On-Highway TC Diesel Engine - Comparison of Advanced Technology Approaches,” SAE Int. J. Engines 10(4), 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0956.
- US EPA 40 CFR Parts 9, 22, 85 et al.; NHTSA 49 CFR Parts 523, 534 et al., “Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles -Phase 2; Final Rule” - Federal Register, 2016.
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- Zavala, B., Sharp, C., Neely, G., and Rao, S. , “CARB Low NOX Stage 3 Program - Aftertreatment Evaluation and Final Demonstration System Results,” SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-1402, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-1402.
- Rao, S., Sarlashkar, J., Rengarajan, S., Sharp, C., and Neely, G. , “A Controls Overview on Achieving Ultra-Low NOX,” SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-1404, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-1404.