This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
The Effects of Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings on Low-Temperature Combustion
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
An experimental study was conducted on a Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder light-duty diesel research engine. Start of Injection (SOI) timing sweeps from -350 deg aTDC to -210 deg aTDC were performed on a total number of five pistons including two baseline metal pistons and three coated pistons to investigate the effects of thick thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on the efficiency and emissions of low-temperature combustion (LTC). A fuel with a high latent heat of vaporization, wet ethanol, was chosen to eliminate the undesired effects of thick TBCs on volumetric efficiency. Additionally, the higher surface temperatures of the TBCs can be used to help vaporize the high heat of vaporization fuel and avoid excessive wall wetting. A specialized injector with a 60° included angle was used to target the fuel spray at the surface of the coated piston. Throughout the experiments, the equivalence ratio, ϕ, was maintained constant at 0.4; the combustion phasing was consistently matched at 6.8 ± 0.4 deg aTDC. It can be concluded that the thick TBC cases achieved 1 to 2 percentage points improvement in combustion efficiency, and generally, a ~2 percentage points increase in indicated engine efficiency. It is also noticed that applying a dense top sealing layer to the TBC further improves the UHC emissions compared to the TBC coated piston with an unsealed surface. From the heat release analysis, it can be concluded that the TBCs have no significant impact on the heat release process and knock intensity while matching the combustion phasing; however, it reduces the intake temperature requirement by up to 20 K. The exhaust gas temperatures were expected to increase for the TBC cases, but the expected increase in exhaust temperature was not conclusive from the results observed in this study.
- Ziming Yan - Clemson University
- Brian Gainey - Clemson University
- James Gohn - Stony Brook University
- Deivanayagam Hariharan - Stony Brook University
- John Saputo - Stony Brook University
- Carl Schmidt - Stony Brook University
- Felipe Caliari - Stony Brook University
- Sanjay Sampath - Stony Brook University
- Benjamin Lawler - Clemson University
CitationYan, Z., Gainey, B., Gohn, J., Hariharan, D. et al., "The Effects of Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings on Low-Temperature Combustion," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0275, 2020.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
- Dec, J.E. , “Advanced Compression-Ignition Engines-Understanding the In-Cylinder Processes,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 32(2):2727-2742, 2009.
- Reitz, R.D. , “Directions in Internal Combustion Engine Research,” Combustion and Flame 1(160):1-8, 2013.
- Heywood, J.B. , Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2018).
- Thring, R.H. , “Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 892068, 1989, https://doi.org/10.4271/892068.
- Eng, J.A. , “Characterization of Pressure Waves in HCCI Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-2859, 2002, 2002, https://doi.org/10.4271/2002-01-2859.
- Saxena, S. and Bedoya, I.D. , “Fundamental Phenomena Affecting Low Temperature Combustion and HCCI Engines, High Load Limits and Strategies for Extending These Limits,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 39(5):457-488, 2013.
- Rose, K.D., Ariztegui, J., Cracknell, R.F., Dubois, T. et al. , “Exploring a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Concept,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0911, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-0911.
- Sellnau, M., Foster, M., Hoyer, K., Moore, W. et al. , “Development of a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) Engine,” SAE International Journal of Engines 7(2):835-851, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-1300.
- Dec, J., Yang, Y., and Dronniou, N. , “Boosted HCCI - Controlling Pressure-Rise Rates for Performance Improvements Using Partial Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):1169-1189, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-0897.
- Yan, Z., Gainey, B., Hariharan, D., and Lawler, B. , “Improving the Controllability of PFS at Low Boost Levels by Applying a Double Late Injection (DLI) Strategy,” International Journal of Engine Research 2019, under review.
- Reitz, R.D. and Duraisamy, G. , “Review of High Efficiency and Clean Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 46:12-71, 2015.
- Dempsey, A.B., Curran, S., and Reitz, R.D. , “Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine,” SAE International Journal of Engines 8(2):859-877, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-0855.
- Lawler, B., Splitter, D., Szybist, J., and Kaul, B. , “Thermally Stratified Compression Ignition: A New Advanced Low Temperature Combustion Mode with Load Flexibility,” Applied Energy 189:122-132, 2017.
- Gainey, B., Yan, Z., Gohn, J., Rahimi Boldaji, M. et al. , “TSCI with Wet Ethanol: An Investigation of the Effects of Injection Strategy on a Diesel Engine Architecture,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1146, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1146.
- Dec, J. and Sjöberg, M. , “A Parametric Study of HCCI Combustion - The Sources of Emissions at Low Loads and the Effects of GDI Fuel Injection,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0752, 2003, https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-0752.
- Flowers, D., Aceves, S., Martinez-Frias, J., Smith, J. et al. , “Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Basic Operating Characteristics and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Effects,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1895, 2001, https://doi.org/10.4271/2001-01-1895.
- Yan, Z., Gainey, B., Hariharan, D., and Lawler, B. , “Investigation into Reactivity Separation between Direct Injected and Premixed Fuels in RCCI Combustion Mode,” in ASME 2019 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF2019-7130.
- Gainey, B., Yan, Z., Hariharan, D., and Lawler, B. , “On the Effects of Injection Strategy, EGR, and Intake Boost on TSCI with Wet Ethanol,” in ASME 2019 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF2019-7164.
- Dec, J., Yang, Y., Dernotte, J., and Ji, C. , “Effects of Gasoline Reactivity and Ethanol Content on Boosted, Premixed and Partially Stratified Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC),” SAE Int. J. Engines 8(3):935-955, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-0813.
- Aceves, S., Flowers, D., Espinosa-Loza, F., Martinez-Frias, J. et al. , “Spatial Analysis of Emissions Sources for HCCI Combustion at Low Loads Using a Multi-Zone Model,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1910, 2004, https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-1910.
- Kamo, R. and Bryzik, W. , “Adiabatic Turbocompound Engine Performance Prediction,” SAE Technical Paper 780068, 1978, https://doi.org/10.4271/780068.
- Sudhakar, V. , “Performance Analysis of Adiabatic Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 840431, 1984, https://doi.org/10.4271/840431.
- Kamo, R. and Bryzik, W. , “Cummins/TACOM Advanced Adiabatic Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 840428, 1984, https://doi.org/10.4271/840428.
- Wong, V., Bauer, W., Kamo, R., Bryzik, W. et al. , “Assessment of Thin Thermal Barrier Coatings for I.C. Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 950980, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/950980.
- Kosaka, H., Wakisaka, Y., Nomura, Y., Hotta, Y. et al. , “Concept of “Temperature Swing Heat Insulation” in Combustion Chamber Walls, and Appropriate Thermo-Physical Properties for Heat Insulation Coat,” SAE Int. J. Engines 6(1):142-149, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-0274.
- Moser, S. , “Experimental Investigation of Low Cost, Low Thermal Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coating on HCCI Combustion, Efficiency, and Emissions,” SAE WCX 2020, under review.
- Assanis, D. and Mathur, T. , “The Effect of Thin Ceramic Coatings on Spark-Ignition Engine Performance,” SAE Technical Paper 900903, 1990, https://doi.org/10.4271/900903.
- Powell, T., O'Donnell, R., Hoffman, M., and Filipi, Z. , “Impact of a Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coating on HCCI Engine Combustion, Emissions, and Efficiency,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 139(11):111504, 2017.
- Hoffman, M.A., Lawler, B.J., Güralp, O.A., Najt, P.M., and Filipi, Z.S. , “The Impact of a Magnesium Zirconate Thermal Barrier Coating on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Operational Variability and the Formation of Combustion Chamber Deposits,” International Journal of Engine Research 16(8):968-981, 2015.
- Gainey, B., Gohn, J., Yan, Z., Malik, K. et al. , “HCCI with Wet Ethanol: Investigating the Charge Cooling Effect of a High Latent Heat of Vaporization Fuel in LTC,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-24-0024, 2019.
- Farrell, A.E., Plevin, R.J., Turner, B.T., Jones, A.D. et al. , “Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals,” Science 311(5760):506-508, 2006.
- Saffy, H.A., Northrop, W.F., Kittelson, D.B., and Boies, A.M. , “Energy, Carbon Dioxide and Water Use Implications of Hydrous Ethanol Production,” Energy Conversion and Management 105:900-907, 2015.
- Flowers, D., Aceves, S., and Frias, J. , “Improving Ethanol Life Cycle Energy Efficiency by Direct Utilization of Wet Ethanol in HCCI Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1867, 2007, https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-1867.
- Benajes, J., García, A., Pastor, J.M., and Monsalve-Serrano, J. , “Effects of Piston Bowl Geometry on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Heat Transfer and Combustion Losses at Different Engine Loads,” Energy 98:64-77, 2016.
- Gainey, B., Hariharan, D., Yan, Z., Zilg, S., Boldaji, M.R., and Lawler, B. , “A Split Injection of Wet Ethanol to Enable Thermally Stratified Compression Ignition,” International Journal of Engine Research, 2018, 1468087418810587.
- Srinivasan, V., Friis, M., Vaidya, A., Streibl, T., and Sampath, S. , “Particle Injection in Direct Current Air Plasma Spray: Salient Observations and Optimization Strategies,” Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing 27(5):609-623, 2007.
- Vaidya, A., Srinivasan, V., Streibl, T., Friis, M. et al. , “Process Maps for Plasma Spraying of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia: An Integrated Approach to Design, Optimization and Reliability,” Materials Science and Engineering: A 497(1-2):239-253, 2008.
- Beardsley, M.B., Socie, D., Redja, E.F., and Berndt, C. , “Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBCs) for Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Components,” No. DOE/OR/22580-1, Caterpillar Inc., Peoria, IL, 2006.
- Hutchinson, J.W. and Evans, A.G. , “On the Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings in a Thermal Gradient,” Surface and Coatings Technology 149(2-3):179-184, 2002.
- Sampath, S., Smith, W.C., Jewett, T.J., and Kim, H. , “Synthesis and Characterization of Grading Profiles in Plasma Sprayed NiCrAlY-Zirconia FGMs,” Materials Science Forum, Vol. 308 (Trans Tech Publications), 383-388, 1999.
- Finot, M., Suresh, S., Bull, C., and Sampath, S. , “Curvature Changes during Thermal Cycling of a Compositionally Graded NiAl2O3 Multi-Layered Material,” Materials Science Engineering 205(1-2):59-71, 1996.
- Dec, J., Dernotte, J., and Ji, C. , “Increasing the Load Range, Load-to-Boost Ratio, and Efficiency of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines 10(3):1256-1274, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0731.
- Tree, D., Wiczynski, P., and Yonushonis, T. , “Experimental Results on the Effect of Piston Surface Roughness and Porosity on Diesel Engine Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 960036, 1996, https://doi.org/10.4271/960036. “Effects of Engine Variables,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1971, 2004, https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-1971.
- Chang, J., Güralp, O., Filipi, Z., Assanis, D. et al. , “New Heat Transfer Correlation for an HCCI Engine Derived from Measurements of Instantaneous Surface Heat Flux,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-2996, 2004, https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-2996.