Experimental investigations on CO2 recovery from petrol engine exhaust using adsorption technology
To be published on November 21, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Event: NuGen Summit
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust. A chamber was designed to effectively store the zeolite and it is attached to the exhaust port of the engine. The selected engine was single cylinder water cooled 4 stroke diesel engine. The experiments were conducted in two phases, the first phase to adsorb and the second phase to regenerate. Temperature pressure swing adsorption was chosen as the preferred process for the regeneration of zeolites. The study was conducted by varying chamber length and sieve quantities. The gas separated from the sieves during regeneration is tested using AVL Ditest analyser to study the percentage of CO2 adsorbed from the engine exhaust. From the results, it was found that 70% of the CO2 emissions were absorbed from the engine exhaust using low cost zeolite sieves.