This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A Study and Mathematical Analysis of Thermionic Energy Conversion Materials Based on Their Solid State Emission Properties
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 11, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Event: International Conference on Advances in Design, Materials, Manufacturing and Surface Engineering for Mobility
The physical mechanism of direct energy conversion technology for space applications is well known for over a century. Whereas thermionic energy conversion is now being explored for automotive regeneration applications considering its high conversion efficiency. The thermionic emission used in space applications has operating temperatures >20000C which is much higher than available temperature at terrestrial automotive applications. Hence the key research interests are focused towards effective utilization of thermionic energy conversion for automotive waste heat recovery at considerably lower temperatures i.e. <10000C. This strongly needs a selection of suitable materials in thermionic convertor. This work shows a comprehensive study on materials and their work function for thermionic emission at relatively lower temperature. The selection of different emitter materials is based on simulation applying Richardson Dushman equation and child’s law at operating temperature ranges. The paper concludes with a comparative analysis of high and low work function materials showing their behavior of thermionic emission at specified temperature.
CitationKodihal, K. and Sagar, A., "A Study and Mathematical Analysis of Thermionic Energy Conversion Materials Based on Their Solid State Emission Properties," SAE Technical Paper 2019-28-0084, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-28-0084.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
- Xuan, X.C. , “Optimization of a Combined Thermionic- Thermoelectric Generator,” Journal of Power Sources 115:167-170, 2002.
- Schwede, J.W., Sarmiento, T., Narasimhan, V.K., Rosenthal, S.J. et al. , “Photon-Enhanced Thermionic Emission from Heterostructures with Low Interface Recombination,” Nat. Commun. 4:1576, 2013.
- McCarthy, T., Reifenberger, R., and Fisher, T. , “Thermionic and Photo-Excited Electron Emission for Energy- Conversion Processes,” Front. Energy Res. 2:54, 2014.
- Yaghoobi, P., Vahdani Moghaddam, M., and Nojeh, A. , “Solar Electron Source and Thermionic Solar Cell,” AIP Adv. 2:42139, 2012.
- Lee, J., Bargatin, I., Iwami, K., Littau, K. et al. , Encapsulated Thermionic Energy Convertor (2012), 493-496.
- Humphrey, T., O’Dwyer, M., and Shakouri, A. , (2005) “A Further Comparison of Solid-State Thermionic and Thermoelectric Refrigeration,” in 24th International Conference on Thermoelectrics, IEEE Publication, 196-199.
- Tsai, H.-L. and Lin, J.-M. , “Model Building and Simulation of Thermoelectric Module Using Matlab/Simulink,” Journal of Electronic Materials 39(9):2105-2111, 2009.
- Gang, X. et al. , “Thermionic Energy Conversion for Concentrating Solar Power,” Applied Energy 1318-1342, 2017.
- Fairchild, S.B., Back, T.C., Murray, P.T., Cahay, M.M., and Shiffler, D.A. , “Low Work Function CsI Coatings for Enhanced Field Emission Properties,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A 29:031402, 2011.
- Kamarul, A., Abdul, K., Leong, J., and Khairudin, M. , “Review on Thermionic Energy Converters,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 63:2231-2224, 2016.
- Belbachir, R.Y., An, Z., and Ono, T. , “Thermal Investigation of a Micro-Gap Thermionic Power Generator,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24:85009, 2014.
- Wang, Y., Su, S., Lin, B., and Chen, J. , “Parametric Design Criteria of an Irreversible Vacuum Thermionic Generator,” Journal of Applied Physics 114:053502, 2013.
- Lo, F.S., Lu, P.S., Ragan-kelley, B., Minnich, A. et al. , “Modelling a Thermionic Energy Converter Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain Particle-In Cell Simulations,” Physics of Plasmas 21:023510, 2014.
- Olawole, O.C. and De, D.K. , “Modeling Thermioenic Emission from Carbon Nanotubes with Modified Richardson-Dushman Equation,” International Society for Optics and Photonics 992716-1-992716-8, 2016.
- Cook, N. and Edelen, J. , Self-Consistent Simulation and Optimization of Space Charge Limited Thermionic Energy Converters (JACoW Publishing, 2018), 543-545.
- Liu, Y., Hassan, R., and Fisher, T.S. , “Simulation of Thermionic Emission from a Quantum Wire Using the Non-Equilibrium Green’s Function Method,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 2004.
- Lee, J.-H., Bargatin, I., Melosh, N.A., and Howe, R.T. , “Optimal Emitter-Collector Gap for Thermionic Energy Converters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100:173904, 2012.
- Moyzhes, B. and Geballe, T. , “The Thermionic Energy Convertor as a Topping Cycle for More Efficient Heat Engines-New Triode Designs with a Longitudinal Magnetic Field,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38:782, 2005.
- Meir, S., Stephanos, C., Geballe, T.H., and Mannhart, J. , “Highly-Efficient Thermoelectric Conversion of Solar Energy and Heat into Electricpower,” J. Renew. Sustain. Energy 5:43127, 2013.
- Regan, W., Byrnes, S., Gannett, W., Ergen, O. et al. , “Screening-Engineered Field-Effect Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 12:4300-4304, 2012.
- Smith, J. , “Increasing the Efficiency of a Thermionic Engine Using a Negative Electron Affinity Collector,” US Army Research Laboratory, 2014.
- Littau, K., Sahasrabuddhe, K., Barfield, D., Yuan, H. et al. , “Microbead-Separated Thermionic Energy Convertor with Enhanced Emission Current,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15:14442-14446, 2013.
- Bickerton, I. and Fox, N.A. , “Improving the Efficiency of Thermionic Energy Converter Using Dual Electric Fields and Electron Beaming,” Front. Mech. Eng. 3:14, 2018.
- Wanke, R., Hassink, G., Stephanos, C., Rastegar, I. et al. , “Magnetic-Field-Free Thermoelectronic Power Conversion Based on Graphene and Related Two- Dimensional Materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 119:244507, 2016.
- Lee, J.H., Bargatin, I., Gwinn, T.O., Vincent, M., Littau, K.A., Maboudian, R., et al. , (2012) “Micro Fabricated Silicon Carbide Thermionic Energy Convertor for Solar Electricity Generation,” in 25th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), IEEE Publication, 1261-1264
- King, D.B., Zavadil, K.R., Jennison, D.R., Battaile, C.C., and Marshall, A.C. , “Low Work Function Material Development for the Microminiature Thermionic Converter,” Sandia Report Sand 2004-0555, 2004.
- Hongyuan, Y. et al. , “Engineering Ultra-Low Work Function of Graphene. American Chemical Society Publication,” Nano Lett. 2015(15):6475-−6480, 2015.
- Liao, T. , “Improved Design of a Photon Enhanced Thermionic Energy Converter,” IEEE Electron Device Letters 0741-3106, 2018.
- Olawole, O.C. and De, D.k. , “Theoretical Studies of Thermionic Conversion of Solar Energy with Graphene as Emitter and Collector,” J. Photon. Energy 8(1):018001, 2018.
- Tiwari, A., Goss, J., Briddon, P., Horsfall, A. et al. , “Unexpected Change in the Electron Affinity of Diamond Caused by the Ultra-Thin Transition Metal Oxide Films,” Europhys. Lett. 108:46005, 2014.
- Trucchi, D. and Melosh, N. , “Electron-Emission Materials: Advances, Applications, and Models,” MRS Bull. 42:488-492, 2017.
- Chou, S. , Discovering Low Work Function Materials for Thermionic Energy Conversion (Research Gate Publication, 2014).