Evaluation of Off-Tracking of Steerable Axle Semi-Trailer Combinations
Published January 9, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Downloadable datasets for this paper availableAnnotation of this paper is available
Steerable multi axle trailers are deployed for transportation due to their cost effectiveness and improved manoeuvrability then non-steered trailers. High speed manoeuvres of steerable axle trailer are considered dangerous for stability due to complex dynamic behaviour and researched for decades. Off-Tracking is an important parameter which influences the dynamic behaviour of steerable axle trailer at both low and high speed. Off-tracking is defined as maximum radial offset between path of the tractor’s front axle centre and trailer’s rearmost axle centre during a specific manoeuvre. Off-tracking, being a slow speed phenomenon becomes major concern for safe and accident free movement even at slow speeds.
A linear 3-DOF yaw plane model of steerable axle tractor trailer combination is developed using Lagrangian approach, which requires steering angles of truck’s front axle and all trailer axles to simulate the system. Trailer steering follows Command steering law hence, mathematical equations based on analytical Ackerman’s theory developed to evaluate ideal trailer steering angles. Further, actual steering angles by physical trailer steering mechanism are evaluated and optimised by MBD model prepared in ADAMS S/W. The dynamic system simulation is carried out to evaluate slow speed off-tracking for ideal trailer steering angles using mathematical equations in MATLAB as well as actual steering angles through Co-simulation approach.
Physical measurement of slow speed off-tracking carried out on 4 axle steerable semi trailer. A close correlation obtained with results of dynamic simulation with actual trailer steering angles, thus, proving the modeling and simulation approach.
The model so developed can be used for evaluation of slow speed off-tracking of different combinations of steerable axle semi-trailers.
CitationSaini, V., Singh, S., and Chaudhuri, S., "Evaluation of Off-Tracking of Steerable Axle Semi-Trailer Combinations," SAE Technical Paper 2019-26-0069, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-26-0069.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
- Jindra, F., “Off-Tracking of Tractor-Trailer Combinations,” Automobile Engineer 96-101, Mar. 1963.
- Stevens, H., Tignor, S.C., and LoJacono, J.F., “Offtracking Calculation Charts for Trailer Combinations,” SAE Technical Paper 650721, 1965, doi:10.4271/650721.
- Erkart, T.W., “Computer Simulation of Off-Tracking of Tractor and Trailer Combination Using Forest Roads,” Master’s thesis, Oragon State University, 1989.
- Ranghavazula & Tsao, “Effect of Multi-Axle Steering on Off-Tracking and Dynamic Lateral Response of Articulated Tractor-Trailer Combinations,” Int. J. Heavy Vehicle Systems 14(4), 2007.
- Ellis, J.R., Vehicle Handling and Dynamics (Wiley-Blackwell).
- Pacejka, H.B., Tyre and Vehicle Dynamics (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006).
- Jujnovich, B. and Cebon, D., “Comparative Performance of Semi-Trailer Steering Systems,” Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, 2002.
- Chaudhuri, S., Saini, V., and Singh, M.M., “Design & Kinematic Analysis of Command Steering System for Multi Axle Trailer,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-26-0067, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-26-0067.
- Zhongling, H., Dongsheng, X., Guangsheng, L., and Changzhi, J., “Study on Co-Simulation Technology Based on ADAMS and MATLAB,” International Symposium on Material, Energy and Environment Engineering (ISM3E 2015), 2015
- Wong, J.Y., Theory of Ground Vehicles (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2001).