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The transportation sector of India is a significant consumer of energy, accounting for over 18% of total energy consumption, which equates to 94 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE). This contributes to heightened air pollution concerns, especially in densely populated cities such as Hyderabad and Delhi. Despite government initiatives such as FAME-I and FAME-II, the current scenario reflects only a modest 2% adoption rate of electric vehicles (EVs). As a result, understanding consumer perceptions, particularly in highly populated urban areas, is crucial. Applying a non-probabilistic–hypothetic deductive research method, this article examined the purchase intent of 403 respondents in North Delhi based on EV attributes and consumers’ attitudes. The study revealed a positive influence of attributes on attitude (r = 0.386; p < 0.001; t = 5.9256; standardized B = 0.205, R2 = 0.149), as well as attitude on intent (r = 0.327; p < 0.001; t = 5.003; standardized B = 2.141; R2 = 0.107), while
Wangchuk, SingyeMahajan, PranavM., AbhimanyuChaudhary, Rajiv
While cooling comfort is important in city buses compared to other vehicles, it is also difficult to keep the cooling performance at a high level. Roof AC units used in commercial vehicles may vary in performance depending on many factors. Therefore, while the design works are in progress, there are some points to be considered while the units are in the packaging phase. These points are that the air used for condenser cooling in the air conditioner suction zone is at low temperature with high flow rate. In this study, it is aimed that the air conditioner and battery cooling unit placed on the roof of a bus developed by ANADOLU ISUZU are not adversely affected by each other. For this reason, in the related study, design and analysis studies were carried out to reduce the negative effects of the hot air coming out of the battery thermal management system (BTMS) in the cooling circuit when the air conditioner is activated. The aim of the study is to ensure that the air-conditioning unit
Küçükbayram, Hamdi
The axle, or differential, flange is understood to be a large source of vehicle driveline imbalance, or unbalance, through defining the center of rotation of a driveshaft. The tolerances and methods of manufacturing and assembly are therefore very important. The aim of the current investigation, is to understand and quantify the imbalance contributions from flange radial and axial runout, along with location error between the driveshaft and axle flange. An overview of the measured radial and axial runouts from a population of 100 axle assemblies is presented, including correlation of the imbalance amplitude distributions to some standard probability density functions. It was found from the investigation, that it is important to understand the nature of any source of runout, relative to any subassembly/component-level balancing, in modeling the transfer function from runout to imbalance loading. Methods for calculating the imbalance of an assembled driveline are presented, which include
Leslie, Andrew C.Liew, AndrewBaddeley, VivDent, SolomonMeehan, Paul A.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides recommendations for: The audit process in general A list of specific areas of attention to be audited Maintaining the test facility in such a manner that it meets audit requirements
EG-1E Gas Turbine Test Facilities and Equipment
This document provides background information, rationale, and data (both physical testing and computer simulations) used in defining the component test methods and similarity criteria described in SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 6330. ARP6330 defines multiple test methods used to assess the effect of seat back mounted IFE monitor changes on blunt trauma to the head and post-impact sharp edge generation. The data generated is based on seat and IFE components installed on type A-T (transport airplane) certified aircraft. While not within the scope of ARP6330, generated test data for the possible future development of surrogate target evaluation methods is also included
Aircraft Seat Committee
This study emphasizes the importance of CAE approach in optimizing EGR tube under vibrational load. EGR tube is a weak link in the EGR system and chances of failure due to vibration and relative displacement of mating parts, i.e., overhang or improper support at exhaust manifold, intake manifold, or EGR system. Consideration of the mating parts for the EGR tube is very important to get the realistic resonance frequencies, otherwise it could have some different results in the CAE, which will deviate from the reality. So, it’s important to study the dynamic response on the EGR tube, which needs to be taken care during the design phase. This paper aims to optimize the EGR tube under vibrational load by using CAE techniques and the industry experience as a product expertise. some critical parameter such as damping is very important during the CAE, which can be generated by doing the rigorous testing and how it affects the stress and correspondingly FOS. CAE model of EGR tube is created on
Munde, GaneshChattaraj, SandipHatkar, ChandanThakur, Abhishek Kumar
Reducing CO2 emissions is an increasingly important issue. In aviation, approaches such as e-propulsion only represent a solution for special applications due to the low energy density of batteries. Because of the low-cost and robust design of combustion engines, this concept is still the most suitable for general aviation. For defossilization, besides e-fuels and bio-fuels, which represent the so-called sustainable aviation fuels (SAF), hydrogen can serve as a promising energy carrier for CO2 reduction. For this purpose, the combustion process of a dual-fuel hydrogen–kerosene (Jet A-1) engine was developed and investigated for use in small aircrafts. This study explores the influence of hydrogen addition on combustion parameters, emissions, and efficiency. An advantage of this special design as dual-fuel engine (hydrogen and kerosene) is the possibility of redundancy operation in the event of a H2 fuel system failure as well as full operational capability of the aircraft in the event
Reitmayr, ChristianWiesmann, FrederikGotthard, ThomasHofmann, Peter
In this study, a bipolar nanosecond pulse all-solid-state power supply was developed including Lenz capacitance (LC) resonant circuit and full-bridge inverter circuit to provide plasma ignition mode for internal combustion engines. The power supply converts the direct current (DC) voltage into voltage pulses using the inverter circuit with insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), and subsequently amplifies the voltage through a pulse transformer. In the magnetic compression circuit, two capacitors were utilized to store energy simultaneously and approximately double the voltage. By exploiting the hysteresis characteristics of the magnetic switch, a nanosecond pulse output was achieved. An enhanced full-bridge inverter snubber circuit was proposed, which can effectively absorb surge voltage, with a voltage impact reduction on the primary winding of the pulse transformer to less than 1%. The newly developed bipolar nanosecond pulse power supply achieved a good performance with bipolar
Sun, AoHu, YongRong, WeixinYu, WenbinZhao, Feiyang
Hydrogen has gained global recognition as a crucial energy resource, holding immense potential to offer clean, efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly energy solutions. Through water electrolysis powered by green electricity, the production of decarbonized “green hydrogen” is achievable. Hydrogen technology emerges as a key pathway for realizing the global objective of “carbon neutrality.” Among various water electrolysis technologies, proton exchange membrane water electrolysis (PEMWE) stands out as exceptionally promising. It boasts high energy density, elevated electrolysis efficiency, and the capacity for high output pressure, making it a frontrunner in the quest for sustainable hydrogen production. The Application of Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis delves into the challenges and trends ahead of PEMWE—from fundamental research to practical application—and briefly describes its relative characteristics, key components, and future targets. The cost
Lin, Rui
What are the differences between the traditional automotive companies and “new mobility” players—and even more importantly, who will win? Those are the questions that this report discusses, taking a particular focus on engineering aspects in the automotive/mobility sector and addressing issues regarding innovation, business, market, and regulation Two Approaches to Mobility Engineering was developed with input from nearly 20 industry experts from new and established companies to gain an overview of the intricacies of newcomers and incumbents, to see where the industry stands, and to provide an outlook on where the sector is headed. It provides recommendations as to what respective players should do to master their future and stay at the forefront of mobility innovation. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Beiker, Sven
In order to establish a high-precision digital automotive climatic wind tunnel, consider the influence of wind tunnel structure on automotive CFD simulation, study the thermal flow field characteristics of automobiles in climatic wind tunnels, and create a detailed digital model of the climatic wind tunnel using CFD method. The simulation model was established based on the actual climatic wind tunnels and vehicles, taking into account the structure of the climatic wind tunnels, the equipment in the test section, the boundary layer suction, and other interferences on the automotive. The simulation results are compared with wind speed in front and altitude direction, surface pressure of the vehicle, and underhood components’ temperature measurements in the climatic wind tunnel. Good agreement is observed confirming that the simulation model can accurately predict the thermal flow field characteristics of automobile in the climatic wind tunnel. The study shows that the integration of the
Xu, XiangZhang, YilunWang, YuanWang, DanWang, Wei
The integration of software-defined approaches with software-defined battery electric vehicles brings forth challenges related to privacy regulations, such as European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation and Data Act, as well as the California Consumer Privacy Act. Compliance with these regulations poses barriers for foreign brands and startups seeking entry into these markets. Car manufacturers and suppliers, particularly software suppliers, must navigate complex privacy requirements when introducing vehicles to these regions. Privacy for Software-defined Battery Electric Vehicles aims to educate practitioners across different market regions and fields. It seeks to stimulate discussions for improvements in processes and requirements related to privacy aspects regarding these vehicles. The report covers the significance of privacy, potential vulnerabilities and risks, technical challenges, safety risks, management and operational challenges, and the benefits of compliance with
Abdul Hamid, Umar Zakir
This article considers the application of a robust control technique for vehicle steer-by-wire (VSbW) system subjected to variations in parameters based on adaptive integral sliding mode control (AISMC). The AISMC has been designed to control the VSbW system to cope with the uncertainties in system parameters. The proposed adaptive control scheme provides the solution for perturbation boundedness, as there is no need to have a prior knowledge of perturbation bound in the uncertainty. In addition, the proposed adaptive control design can avoid overestimation of sliding gain under unknown prior knowledge of perturbations. Moreover, the inclusion of integral sliding mode control (ISMC) leads to elimination of the reaching phase in trajectory solution of controlled system. Computer simulations have been used to verify the effectiveness of proposed AISMC to show the superiority of the proposed control technique; in this regard, a comparison between AISMC and other control methods from the
Abbas, Saad JabbarHusain, Suha S.Al-Wais, SabaHumaidi, Amjad Jaleel
Fossil fuel usage causes environmental pollution, and fuel depletion, further affecting a country’s economy. Biofuels and diesel-blended fuels are practical alternatives to sustain fossil fuels. This experimental study analyses lemongrass oil’s performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics after blending with diesel. Lemongrass oil is mixed with diesel at 10 (B10), 15 (B15), and 25% (B25) and evaluated using a 5.20 kW direct injection diesel engine. B10 brake thermal efficiency is 36.47%, which is higher than other blends. The B10 displays an 8.73% decrease in brake-specific fuel consumption compared to diesel. An increase in exhaust gas temperature for B10 than diesel is 4.5%. It indicates that higher lemongrass oil blends decrease exhaust gas temperature. The decrease in average carbon monoxide emissions in B10 to diesel is 22.19%. The decrease in hydrocarbon emissions for B10 to diesel is 7.14%. Biodiesel with lemongrass oil increases nitrogen oxide (NOx) because of
Swami Punniakodi, Banumathi MunuswamyArumugam, ChelliahSuyambazhahan, SivalingamSenthil, RamalingamBalasubramanian, DhineshPapla Venugopal, InbanaathanNguyen, Van NhanhCao, Dao Nam
To provide specifications for lighting and marking of industrial wheeled equipment whenever such equipment is operated or traveling on a highway
OPTC3, Lighting and Sound Committee
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars and forgings 1.50 inches or less in diameter or least distance between parallel sides (thickness
AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of wire
AMS F Corrosion and Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
This specification covers a corrosion- and heat-resistant steel in the form of seamless tubing
AMS F Corrosion and Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
Air spring systems are challenging to mathematically model due to the complexity of their nonlinear dynamic characteristics. Numerous air spring mechanical and thermodynamic models have been proposed, but this study focused on the development and analysis of a new thermodynamic air spring model under a polytropic thermodynamic process that could accurately represent the force output in a multibody dynamics (MBD) virtual suspension subsystem. This model considered function inputs of sprung mass, un-sprung mass, and design height to efficiently generate updated air spring properties for new vehicle configurations, specifically for a self-propelled sprayer application. After this model was validated against physical ground-truth sensor data, it was utilized in a sensitivity study to experimentally test an alternative air spring component and to understand the resulting performance effect on an operator comfort key performance indicator
Adams, Bailey
The following terminology has been generated by the ATA/IATA/SAE Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC) and provides terminology for design, fabrication, and repair of composite and bonded metal structures
AMS CACRC Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee