This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Experimental Investigation of Combustion Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine Retrofitted to Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition Operation
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 09, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Recent development in hydraulic fracking made natural gas (NG) to be a promising alternative gaseous fuel for heavy-duty diesel engines. The existing compression ignition (CI) engine can be retrofitted to NG spark ignition (SI) operation by replacing the diesel injector with a spark plug and fumigating NG into the intake manifold. However, the original diesel piston geometry (flat head and bowl-in-piston chamber) was usually retained to reduce modification cost. The goal of this study was to increase the understanding of the NG lean-burn characteristics in a diesel-like, fast-burn SI combustion chamber. The experimental platform can operate in conventional (i.e., all engine parts are metal) or in optical configuration (i.e., the stock piston and cylinder block are replaced with a see-through piston and an extended cylinder block). The optical data indicated a fast-propagated flame inside the piston bowl. However, this rapid-burning process did not shorten the combustion duration, which can be explained by an important fuel mass trapped in the squish that burned slowly during the expansion stroke. Steady-state experiments that operated at the metal engine configuration suggested that operating conditions controlled the phasing difference between inside- and outside-bowl burn processes. Advancing the spark timing can increase the phasing separation between these two combustion events to a point that a secondary peak will appear in the heat release rate. Moreover, changing the spark timing had a negligible effect on the end of combustion, probably due to the complex combustion of the charged squish. Overall, natural gas combustion in such retrofitted engines presents differences compared to that in conventional spark ignited engines.
CitationLiu, J. and Dumitrescu, C., "Experimental Investigation of Combustion Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine Retrofitted to Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition Operation," SAE Technical Paper 2019-24-0124, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-24-0124.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
- Langness, C., Mattson, J., and Depcik, C. , “Moderate Substitution of Varying Compressed Natural Gas Constituents for Assisted Diesel Combustion,” Combustion Science and Technology 189:1354-1372, 2017.
- Li, H., Gatts, T., Liu, S., Wayne, S. et al. , “An Experimental Investigation on the Combustion Process of a Simulated Turbocharged Spark Ignition Natural Gas Engine Operated on Stoichiometric Mixture,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 140:091504, 2018.
- Xu, H. and LaPointe, L.A. , “Combustion Characteristics of Lean Burn and Stoichiometric with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engines,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 137:111511, 2015.
- Weaver, C.S. , “Natural Gas Vehicle-A Review of the State of the Art,” SAE Technical Paper 892133 , 1989, doi:10.4271/892133.
- Beck, N.J., Barkhimer, R.L., Johnson, W.P., Wong, H.C. et al. , “Evolution of Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engines-Stoichiometric, Carbureted and Spark Ignited to Lean Burn, Fuel Injected and Micro-Pilot,” SAE Technical Paper 972665 , 1997, doi:10.4271/972665.
- Dumitrescu, C.E., Padmanaban, V., and Liu, J. , “An Experimental Investigation of Early Flame Development in an Optical SI Engine Fueled with Natural Gas,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 140:082802, 2018.
- Gupta, M., Bell, S.R., and Tillman, S.T. , “An Investigation of Lean Combustion in a Natural Gas-Fueled Spark-Ignited Engine,” Journal of Energy Resources Technology 118:145-151, 1996.
- Elgin, R.C., Turner, C.W., and Hagen, C.L. , “Combustion Chamber Design Considerations for a Compression Ignition Engine to Spark Ignited Natural Gas Engine Conversion,” presented at in Fall Technical Meeting of the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, Fort Collins, CO, USA, October 07-08, 2013.
- Sahoo, S., Tripathy, S., and Srivastava, D.K. , “Performance and Combustion Investigation of a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine Using CFD,” in ASME 2018 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ICEF2018-9613, 2018.
- Eghbali, B. , “Natural Gas as a Vehicular Fuel,” SAE Technical Paper 841159 , 1984, doi:10.4271/841159.
- Langness, C. and Depcik, C. , “Statistical Analyses of CNG Constituents on Dual-Fuel Compression Ignition Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0802 , 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0802.
- Liu, J. and Dumitrescu, C.E. , “Emissions Formation in a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignited Engine Converted to Natural Gas Spark-Ignited Operation,” presented at in 11th U. S. National Combustion Meeting of the Combustion Institute, Pasadena, CA, USA, March 24-27, 2019.
- Fleming, R.D. and Allsup, J.R. , “Emission Characteristics of Natural Gas as an Automotive Fuel,” SAE Technical Paper 710833 , 1971, doi:10.4271/710833.
- Heywood, J.B. , Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (1988).
- Li, L., Gong, Y., Deng, J., and Gong, X. , “Reduction Request and Future High-Efficiency Zero-Emission Argon Power Cycle Engine,” Automotive Innovation 1:43-53, 2018.
- Stocchi, I., Liu, J., Dumitrescu, C.E., Battistoni, M., and Grimaldi, C.N. , “Effect of Piston Crevices on the Numerical Simulation of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition Operation,” Journal of Energy Resources Technology 141:112204, 2019.
- Liu, J. and Dumitrescu, C. , “Experimental Investigation of Natural Gas Lean-Burn Spark Ignition Combustion Inside a Bowl-in-Piston Geometry,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0559 , 2019, doi:10.4271/2019-01-0559.
- Raine, R.R., Stephenson, J., and Elder, S.T. , “Characteristics of Diesel Engines Converted to Spark Ignition Operation Fuelled with Natural Gas,” SAE Technical Paper 880149 , 1988, doi:10.4271/880149.
- Donateo, T., Tornese, F., and Laforgia, D. , “Computer-Aided Conversion of an Engine from Diesel to Methane,” Applied Energy 108:8-23, 2013.
- Zheng, J., Huang, Z., Wang, J., Wang, B. et al. , “Effect of Compression Ratio on Cycle-by-Cycle Variations in a Natural Gas Direct Injection Engine,” Energy & Fuels 23:5357-5366, 2009.
- Zheng, J., Chen, X., Hu, T., and Zhan, Z. , “The Research Development in Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Natural Gas Engine,” in Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress, 2013, 51-63.
- Liu, J. and Dumitrescu, C.E. , “3D CFD Simulation of a CI Engine Converted to SI Natural Gas Operation Using the G-Equation,” Fuel 232:833-844, 2018.
- Liu J. , “Investigation of Combustion Characteristics of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Natural Gas Spark Ignition Operation,” PhD Dissertation, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 2018.
- Liu, J. and Dumitrescu, C.E. , “Lean-Burn Characteristics of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Natural-Gas Spark Ignition,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 141:071013, 2019.
- Liu, J., Bommisetty, H.K., and Dumitrescu, C.E. , “Experimental Investigation of a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine Retrofitted to Natural Gas Spark-Ignition Operation,” Journal of Energy Resources Technology 141:112207, 2019.
- Zuo, C. and Zhao, J. , “Development of Diesel Engines Fuelled with Natural Gas,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3505 , 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-3505.
- Meyer, R., Meyers, D., Shahed, S.M., and Duggal, V.K. , “Development of a Heavy Duty on-Highway Natural Gas-Fueled Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 922362 , 1992, doi:10.4271/922362.
- Reyes, M., Tinaut, F.V., Giménez, B. et al. , “Characterization of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in a Natural Gas Spark Ignition Engine,” Fuel 140:752-761, 2015.
- Bommisetty, H., Liu, J., Kooragayala, R., and Dumitrescu, C. , “Fuel Composition Effects in a CI Engine Converted to SI Natural Gas Operation,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1137 , 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-1137.
- Liu, J. and Dumitrescu, C.E. , “Flame Development Analysis in a Diesel Optical Engine Converted to Spark Ignition Natural Gas Operation,” Applied Energy 230:1205-1217, 2018.
- Liu, J. and Dumitrescu, C. , “CFD Simulation of Metal and Optical Configuration of a Heavy-Duty CI Engine Converted to SI Natural Gas. Part 1: Combustion Behavior,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0002 , 2019, doi:10.4271/2019-01-0002.
- Liu, J. and Dumitrescu, C. , “CFD Simulation of Metal and Optical Configuration of a Heavy-Duty CI Engine Converted to SI Natural Gas. Part 2: In-Cylinder Flow and Emissions,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0003 , 2019, doi:10.4271/2019-01-0003.
- Liu, J. and Dumitrescu, C.E. , “Combustion Partitioning Inside a Natural Gas Spark Ignition Engine with a Bowl-in-Piston Geometry,” Energy Conversion and Management 183:73-83, 2019.