Experimental Investigations of an Icing Protection System for UAVs
Published June 10, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Downloadable datasets for this paper availableAnnotation of this paper is available
UAV icing is a severe challenge that has only recently shifted into the focus of research. Today, there are no mature icing mitigation technologies for UAVs, except for the largest fixed-wing drones. We are working on the development of an electro-thermal icing protection technology called D•ICE for medium-sized fixed-wing UAVs. As part of the design process, an experimental test campaign at the Cranfield icing wind tunnel has been conducted. This paper describes the icing protection system and shares experimental results on its capability for icing detection and anti-icing. Icing detection is based on an algorithm evaluating temperature signals that are induced on the leading-edge of the wing. A baseline signal is generated during dry (icing cloud off) conditions and compared to a signal during wet (icing cloud on) conditions. Due to significant differences in the heat transfer regime, the system can differentiate between these two states. The experiments show that our system can reliably detect icing conditions based on this principle. Furthermore, the anti-icing capability of the system is proven for two icing cases. The minimal required heat flux to keep the surface ice-free was obtained by gradually reducing power supply to the heating zones until icing could be detected. These experimental results were compared to FENSAP-ICE simulations. The test campaign includes a successful fully-autonomous run, where the system automatically detected icing and initiated suitable anti-icing measures.
- Richard Hann - Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
- Kasper Borup - Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
- Artur Zolich - Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
- Kim Sorensen - UBIQ Aerospace
- Håvard Vestad - Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
- Martin Steinert - Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
- Tor Johansen - Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
CitationHann, R., Borup, K., Zolich, A., Sorensen, K. et al., "Experimental Investigations of an Icing Protection System for UAVs," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-2038, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-2038.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Siquig, A. , “Impact of Icing on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Operations,” Naval Environmental Prediction Research Facility, 1990, doi: test123.
- Bragg, M.B., Broeren, A.P., and Blumenthal, L.A. , “Iced-Airfoil Aerodynamics,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 41(5):323-362, 2005, doi:10.1016/j.paerosci.2005.07.001.
- Tran, P., Baruzzi, G., Tremblay, F., Benquet, P., et al. , “FENSAP-ICE applications to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV),” in 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 2004, 390-402.
- Szilder, K. and Yuan, W. , “In-Flight Icing on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and its Aerodynamic Penalties,” Prog. Flight Phys. 9:173-188, 2017, doi:10.1051/eucass/201709173.
- Williams, N., Benmeddour, A., Brian, G., and Ol, M. , “The Effect of Icing on Small Unmanned Aircraft Low Reynolds Number Airfoils,” in 17th Australian International Aerospace Congress, AIAC, Melbourne, 2017.
- Hann, R., Wenz, A., Gryte, K., and Johansen, T.A. , “Impact of Atmospheric Icing on UAV Aerodynamic Performance,” in 2017 Workshop on Research, Education and Development of Unmanned Aerial Systems, RED-UAS 2017, Linköping, 66-71, 2017, doi:10.1109/RED-UAS.2017.8101645, ISBN 9781538609392.
- Hann, R. , “UAV Icing: Comparison of LEWICE and FENSAP-ICE for Ice Accretion and Performance Degradation,” in 2018 Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, AIAA Aviation, Atlanta, ISBN 978-1-62410-558-6, 2018, doi:10.2514/6.2018-2861.
- Goraj, Z. , “An Overview of the Deicing and Antiicing Technologies with Prospects for the Future,” in 24Th Int. Congr. Aeronaut. Sci, 2004, 1-11.
- Hann, R. , “Opportunities and Challenges for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the Arctic,” in 13th ArcticNet Annual Scientific Meeting, 2017.
- Peck, L., Ryerson, C.C., and Martel, C.J. , “Army Aircraft Icing Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory,” Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 2002.
- Sørensen, K.L. , Autonomous Icing Protection Solution for Small Unmanned Aircraft (NTNU, 2016). ISBN:987-82-326-1889-7.
- Battisti, L. , Wind Turbines in Cold Climates (Springer, 2015).
- Hann, R. , “UAV Icing: Comparison of LEWICE and FENSAP-ICE for Anti-Icing Loads,” in AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum, AIAA, San Diego, 2019, doi:10.2514/6.2019-1286, ISBN AIAA 2019-1286.
- Hammond, D.W. and Luxford, G. , “The Cranfield University Icing Tunnel,” in 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 2003.
- Steinert, M. and Leifer, L.J. , “Finding One’s Way: Re-Discovering a Hunter-Gatherer Model based on Wayfaring,” Int. J. Eng. Educ. 28(2), 2012.
- Holmes, D.G. and Lipo, T.A. , Pulse Width Modulation for Power Converters: Principles and Practice (John Wiley & Sons, 2003).
- Dillingh, J.E. and Hoeijmakers, H.W. , “Numerical Simulation of Airfoil Ice Accretion and Thermal Anti-Icing Systems,” in ICAS Congress Proceedings, 2004.
- Habashi, W.G. , “Recent Progress In Unifying CFD and In-Flight Icing Simulation,” 2010.
- Héloïse, B., François, M., and Wagdi, G.H. , “FENSAP-ICE’s Three-Dimensional in-Flight Ice Accretion Module: ICE3D,” J. Aircr 40(2), 2003.
- New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority, “Aircraft Icing Handbook,” 2000.