This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
FRED II Quasistatic Seat Testing Rearward: An Improved Method Based on the SAE H-point Manikin
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 2, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Various methods have been used to load a seat in the rear direction, including FMVSS 207, assorted body blocks and QST (quasistatic seat test). However, each method lacks some critical aspect of occupant loading of the seat or is too complex for routine development work. A new method is presented to determine the strength and energy transfer of a seat to an occupant in rear impacts that reflects how an occupant interacts with the seat in a rear impact. A metal-cast H-point manikin, called FRED II, was modified to support a loading bar and was pulled rearward into the seatback by a hydraulic ram. The force and displacement of the loading and the inboard and outboard seatback angle were measured. The response of the seat was recorded by video. The moment about the recliner pivot at peak force was determined by aligning the center of the recliner in side views of the seat position initially and at peak load. The height of the cable above the center of the recliner was determined giving the moment arm at peak load. The force was integrated with displacement to determine energy transfer to the seat. Twelve tests were performed with FRED II and twelve with a traditional body block used by CRA. There were nine matched tests with identical seats. With FRED II, the average peak moment was 2,407 ± 460 Nm and the energy transfer was 2,046 ± 531 J. With the body block, the average peak moment was 2,534 ± 297 Nm using the same method to determine the moment at peak force and the energy transfer was 1,740 ± 379 J. FRED II loads the seatback as the Hybrid III dummy does in sled tests. It measures the energy transfer capability of the seat in a manner that is similar to occupant loading in a rear impact. FRED II is a simple and improved quasistatic method for seat testing. FRED II provides the H-point location and can be used to measure head restraint position.
CitationViano, D., Burnett, R., and White, S., "FRED II Quasistatic Seat Testing Rearward: An Improved Method Based on the SAE H-point Manikin," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1032, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1032.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
- Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 207-Seating Systems-Passenger Cars, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, Trucks and Buses, Part 571-Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Federal Register, Vol. 35, No. 191, 15290-96, Thursday, October 1, 1970.
- Severy, D.M., Brink, H.M., and Baird, J.D., “Vehicle Design for Passenger Protection from High-Speed Rear-End Collisions,” SAE 680774, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1968.
- Severy, D.M., Brink, H.M., and Baird, J.D., “Backrest and Head Restraint Design for Rear-End Collision Protection, SAE 680079, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1968.
- Viano, D.C. and White, S., “Seat Strength in Rear Body Block Tests,” Traffic Injury Prevention 17(5):502-507, 2016.
- Saczalski, K.J., Burton, J.L., Lewis, P.R., Saczalski, T.K., and Baray, P.E., “Belt Integrated Vehicular Seat Rear Impact Studies,” Seoul 2000 FISITA World Automotive Congress, F2000G279, Seoul, Korea, June 12-15, 2000.
- Seatback Load Applying Device US Patent No. 5,379,646, January 10, 1995, European Patent EP 0646 782, January 28, 1998.
- Viano, D.C., Role of the Seat in Rear Crash Safety (Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2002), 1-491. ISBN:0-7680-0847-6.
- Viano, D.C., “High Retention Seat Performance in Quasistatic Seat Tests,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0173, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-0173.
- SAE, “J826 Devices for Use in Defining and Measuring Vehicle Seating Accommodation,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, November 2015.
- SAE, “Instrumentation for Impact Tests - Part 1 - Electronic Instrumentation,” Recommended practice J211-1, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, March 1995.
- Schneider, L.W., Robbins, D.H., Pflug, M.A., and Snyder, R.G., “Development of Anthropometry-Based Design Specifications for an Advanced Anthropomorphic Dummy Family,” volume 1. DOT HS 806 715, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation, December 1983.
- Viano, D.C., Parenteau, C.S., Burnett, R., and Prasad, P., “Occupant Responses in Conventional and ABTS Seats in High-Speed Rear Sled Tests with a Normally Seated Dummy,” Traffic Injury Prevention 19(2, 1):54-59, 2018.
- ICBC, “Head Restraint Measuring Device (HRMD),” Found at http://automotive-accessories.co.uk/docs/rcar-HRMDProcedure, 2018.
- Severy, D.M., Blaisdell, D.M., and Kerkhoff, J.F., “Automotive Seat Design and Collision Performance, SAE 760810, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1976.
- Mertz, H.J., Irwin, A.L., and Prasad, P., “Biomechanical and Scaling Basis for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values,” Stapp Car Crash J. 60:625-657, 2016.
- Mertz, H.J., Jarrett, K., Moss, S., Salloum, M., and Zhao, Y., “The Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Dummy,” SAE 2001-22-0014, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 2001.
- Fryar, C.D., Gu, Q., and Ogden, C.L., “Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, 2007-2010,” National Center for Health Statistics, Vital Health Stat 11(252), 2012.
- Viano, D.C. and Parenteau, C.S., “Serious Injury in Very-Low and Very-High Speed Rear Impacts,” SAE 2008-01-1485, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 2008.
- Burnett, R., Carter, J., Roberts, V., and Myers, B., “The Influence of Seatback Characteristics on Cervical Injury Risk in Severe Rear Impacts,” Accid Anal Prev. 36:591-601, 2004.