Residual Injury Situation of Severe Motorcyclists and Accident Characteristics - Proposals on Safety Standards
To be published on April 2, 2019 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this study was to analyze the current accident situation of motorcycles with cubic capacity > 125 cm³ in Germany, especially with most severely injured and killed riders MAIS 3+. The characteristics and reasons of these injury pattern are analyzed and countermeasures for injury protection proposed. The accident data of 464 drivers of motorcycles were analyzed, collected by a scientific research team of GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) within the years 2010 up to 2015 as a statistical representative sample of the real accident occurrence in Germany. The study points out that 16.9% of motorcycle accidents lead to most severely injured riders with MAIS 3+. Compared to car occupants this percentage is about 8 times higher. Comparative collectives of car occupants show that only 1.9% of MAIS 3+ injured persons occur. Additionally, it could be shown that approximately 22% of motorcyclists with helmet use suffered head injuries. Most severe injuries AIS 3+ could be found at the head frequently in the form of skull fractures included the skull-base. Most severe injuries can be seen often at the thorax documented in form of rip fractures and/or fractures in the area of the shoulder (clavicular) with accompanying injuries of the inner organs. Severe Spine injuries appeared frequently in form of fractures of the thoracic spine, followed by fractures of the lumbar spine and the cervical spine. In the area of the abdomen there were many sever injuries documented with fractures in the area of the pelvis and often accompanying injuries of the inner organs. Minor injuries in form of abrasions and contusions are often documented at the arms, followed by fractures of the hand or the fingers and fractures at the ulna as well as at the humerus. At the legs there are especially femoral fractures documented as well as muscle and ligament injuries in the area of the knee and fractures of the tibia and fibular. At the feet there are fractures and luxations at the ankle joint very common as well as fractures of the toes. Countermeasures for more protection can be seen in different areas, on one hand in driver and vehicle assistant systems to influence the driver behavior and to reduce the driving speed and give concrete information for the avoidance of accidents, especially with severe injuries AIS 3+. There will also be suggestions regarding the optimization of the infrastructure design and the design of the peripheral areas with more implementation of special guardrails at exposed areas, to avoid severe injuries, especially no exposed objects at the roadside at accident hotspots. On the other hand, measures on the vehicle design can lead to further injury reduction in avoidance of sharp and edge structures at cars and especially trucks. Also a higher number of use rate of protective clothes will help to protect the body of motorcycle riders in the accident and impact event. Also, the implementation of protector systems at the bike like leg protectors and coverage can avoid severe leg and foot injuries.