This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Gaseous Fuels Variation Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Small Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 02, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Our research focused on the assessment of fuel variation effects on performance of a 34 cc two-stroke, natural gas combustion engine designed for use as the prime mover in either slider-crank or novel linear generator applications. Nearly two-thirds of US homes have either natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas available at low pressures. We tested the engine with three different natural gas blends, pure methane, and pure propane. In order to reduce fuel compression power, we modified the engine to use low-pressure direct injection (LPDI) of gaseous fuels. We examined regulated gaseous emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and combustion trends over a range of delivered air fuel ratios. Start of Injection (SOI) occurred at either 180 or 190 CA BTDC and efficiency improved by reducing fuel slip. However, for natural gas blends, the predominant emissions were methane - a potent greenhouse gas. We showed that while propane had the highest CO2 emissions, it also produced the lowest CO2 equivalent emissions. However, propane also tended to have the highest NOx, NMHC+NOx, and CO emissions. As expected, propane and the natural gas blends with high ethane content tended to produce the highest peak cylinder pressure while methane produced the lowest. Denser (higher C2+ content) fuels yielded the lowest COV of IMEP over the broadest range of delivered air fuel ratios, while pure methane yielded the highest. For all fuel blends, LPDI operation showed the capability to meet all current regulated gaseous emissions standards while providing improved efficiency.
CitationDarzi, M., Johnson, D., Bade, M., and Famouri, P., "Gaseous Fuels Variation Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Small Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0560, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0560.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 7]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 8]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 9]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 10]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 11]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 12]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 13]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 14]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 15]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 16]|
- Bade, M., Clark, N., Robinson, M.C., and Famouri, P., “Parametric Investigation of Combustion and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Oscillating Linear Engine Alternator,” Journal of Combustion (2907572), 2018, doi:10.1155/2018/2907572.
- Darzi, M., Johnson, D., Zamani, N., Ulishney, C. et al., “Baseline Evaluation of Ignition Timing and Compression Ratio Configurations on Efficiency and Combustion Stability of a Small-Bore, Two-Stroke, Natural Gas Engine,” in Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2017-70078, 2017, 10.1115/IMECE2017-70078.
- Stan, C. and Lefebvre, J.L., “Development of A Direct Injection Concept for Two Wheelers Equipped With Two Stroke Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1248, 2009, doi:10.4271/1999-01-1248.
- Blair, G., Design and Simulation of Two-Stroke Engines (Warrendale, PA: SAE International, 1994).
- Darzi, M., Johnson, D., Ulishney, C., Bade, R.M.B. et al., “Quantification of Energy Pathways and Gas Exchange of a Small Port Injection SI Two-Stroke Natural Gas Engine Operating on Different Exhaust Configurations,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1278, 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-1278.
- Pradeep, V., Bakshi, S., and Ramesh, A., “Direct Injection of Gaseous LPG In A Two-Stroke SI Engine For Improved Performance,” Applied Thermal Engineering 89:738-747, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.06.049.
- Darzi, M., Johnson, D., Ulishney, C., and Clark, N., “Low Pressure Direct Injection Strategies Effect on A Small SI Natural Gas Two-Stroke Engine’s Energy Distribution And Emissions,” Applied Energy 230:1585-1602, 2018, doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.091.
- Kumarappa, S. and Prabhukumar, G., “Improving the Performance of Two Stroke Spark Ignition Engine by Direct Electronic CNG Injection,” JJMIE 2(4):169-174, 2008.
- Johnson, D., Darzi, M., Zamani, N., Ulishney, C., and Bade, M. “Methods to Improve Combustion Stability, Efficiency, and Power Density of a Small, Port-Injected, Spark-Ignited, Two-Stroke Natural Gas Engine,” Proceedings of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Conference, ICEF2017-3557, 2017, 10.1115/ICEF2017-3557.
- Araki, M., Kishimoto, H., Nakajima, K., Maehara, M.S. et al., “A CNG Two Stroke Cycle SI Engine Using Intermittent Low Pressure Fuel Injection from Scavenging Ports,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-28-0004, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-28-0004.
- Latusek, J.P. and Burrahm, R.W., “Conversion of Two Small Utility Engines to LPG Fuel,” SAE Technical Paper 932447, 1993, doi:10.4271/932447.
- Bozza, F., Gimelli, A., Andreassi, L., Rocco, V., and Scarcelli, R., “1D-3D Analysis of the Scavenging and Combustion Process in a Gasoline and Natural-Gas Fuelled Two-Stroke Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1087, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-1087.
- Karavalakis, G., Durbin, T.D., Villela, M., and Miller, J.W., “Air Pollutant Emissions Of Light-Duty Vehicles Operating On Various Natural Gas Compositions,” Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 4:8-16, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.jngse.2011.08.005.
- Min, B.H., Chung, J.T., Ho, Y.K., and Park, S., “Effects of Gas Composition on The Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas Engines,” KSME International Journal 16(2):219-226, 2002, doi:10.1007/BF03185173.
- Darzi, M., Johnson, D., Bade, R.M.B., Ulishney, C. et al., “Continuously Varying Exhaust Outlet Diameter to Improve Efficiency and Emissions of a Small SI Natural Gas Two-Stroke Engine by Internal EGR,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0985, 2018, doi:10.1115/ICEF2017-3557.
- “Fuel Quality Calculator,” Cummins Westport, [Online]. Available: http://www.cumminswestport.com/fuel-quality-calculator. [Accessed 22 August 2018].
- Heywood, J.B., Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988).
- Tira, H., Herreros, J., Tsolakis, A., and Wyszynksi, M., “Influence of the Addition of LPG-Reformate and H2 on an Engine Dually Fueled with LPG-Diesel, -RME and GTL Fuels,” Fuel, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2013.10.065.
- Zhang, J., Hu, E., Zhang, Z., Pan, L., and Huang, Z. “Comparative Study on Ignition Delay Times of C1-C4 Alkanes,” Energy Fuels, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef400496a.
- “Electronic Code of Federal Regulations,” e-CFR, 5 January 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=fc799a21d4ca6f413913715af7c09e88&mc=true&node=pt40.36.1054&rgn=div5. [Accessed 9 January 2018]; McConnell, R. “National Emissions from Lawn and Garden Equipment,” EPA, Boston, 2015, https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/banks.pdf.
- “Small Nonroad Spark-Ignition Engines (<19 kiloWatts): Family Naming Conventions,” EPA, 26 December 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.epa.gov/vehicle-and-engine-certification/small-nonroad-spark-ignition-engines. [Accessed 9 January 2018].
- Dube, A. and Ramesh, A., “Influence of Injection Parameters on the Performance and Emissions of a Direct Injection Two Stroke SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1052, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1052.