This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 02, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures. As the superheated degree increases, for the slight flash-boiling stage, the penetration length linearly and slightly increases, the near-field spray width keeps constant or slightly increases, and the far-field spray width linearly and slightly decreases; for the transition flash-boiling stage, the penetration length slightly decreases, the near-field spray width slightly increases, and the far-field spray width significantly decreases to the minimum; for the flare flash-boiling stage, the penetration length, the near-field spray width, as well as the far-field spray width significantly increase. The addition of ethanol to gasoline could decrease the penetration length, and increase the spray width. The penetration length and spray width for E50 is smaller and larger respectively than those for E30 under the same superheated degree, especially on the flare flash-boiling stage.
- Tairan Chen - Beijing Institute of Technology
- Guoyu Wang - Beijing Institute of Technology
- Junhao Yan - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
- Timothy Lee - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
- Biao Huang - Beijing Institute of Technology
- Chia-Fon Lee - University of Illinois/Beijing Institute of Technology
CitationChen, T., Wang, G., Yan, J., Lee, T. et al., "Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0297, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0297.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Xu, H., Wang, C., Ma, X., Sarangi, A.K. et al., “Fuel Injector Deposits in Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engines,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 50:63-80, 2015.
- Baumgarten, C., Mixture Formation in Internal Combustion Engines (Springer Science & Business Media, 2006).
- Zeng, W., Xu, M., Zhang, G., Zhang, Y., and Cleary, D.J., “Atomization and Vaporization for Flash-Boiling Multi-Hole Sprays with Alcohol Fuels,” Fuel 95:287-297, 2012.
- Sher, E., Bar-Kohany, T., and Rashkovan, A., “Flash-Boiling Atomization,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 34(4):417-439, 2008.
- Lee, J., Madabhushi, R., Fotache, C., Gopalakrishnan, S. et al., “Flashing Flow of Superheated Jet Fuel,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 32(2):3215-3222, 2009.
- Reitz, R.D., “A Photographic Study of Flash-Boiling Atomization,” Aerosol Science and Technology 12(3):561-569, 1990.
- Chang, D.-L. and Lee, C.-F.F., “Development of a Simplified Bubble Growth Model for Flash Boiling Sprays in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 30(2):2737-2744, 2005.
- She, J., “Experimental Study on Improvement of Diesel Combustion and Emissions Using Flash Boiling Injection,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0341, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0341.
- Li, S., Zhang, Y., and Xu, B., “Correlation Analysis of Superheated Liquid Jet Breakup to Bubble Formation in a Transparent Slit Nozzle,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 68:452-458, 2015.
- Aleiferis, P.G., Serras-Pereira, J., Augoye, A., Davies, T.J. et al., “Effect of Fuel Temperature on in-Nozzle Cavitation and Spray Formation of Liquid Hydrocarbons and Alcohols from a Real-Size Optical Injector for Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engines,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53(21-22):4588-4606, 2010.
- Yang, S., Song, Z., Wang, T., and Yao, Z., “An Experiment Study on Phenomenon and Mechanism of Flash Boiling Spray from a Multi-Hole Gasoline Direct Injector,” Atomization and Sprays 23(5), 2013.
- Aori, G., Hung, D., Zhang, M., Zhang, G., and Li, T., “Effect of Nozzle Configuration on Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of Multi-Hole Fuel Injectors under Superheated Conditions,” Atomization and Sprays 26(5), 2016.
- Li, Y., Guo, H., Ma, X., Qi, Y. et al., “Morphology Analysis on Multi-Jet Flash-Boiling Sprays under Wide Ambient Pressures,” Fuel 211:38-47, 2018.
- Anderson, J.E., Baker, R.E., Hardigan, P.J., Ginder, J.M. et al., SAE Technical Paper 09FFL-0302, 2009.
- Union, E.. “Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources and Amending and Subsequently Repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC.” Official Journal of the European Union 5 (2009): 2009.
- Song, C., “An Overview of New Approaches to Deep Desulfurization for Ultra-Clean Gasoline, Diesel Fuel and Jet Fuel,” Catalysis Today 86(1-4):211-263, 2003.
- Palmer, F.H., “Vehicle Performance of Gasoline Containing Oxygenates,” in International Conference on Petroleum Based Fuels and Automotive Applications, 1986, Imeche Conference Publications 1986-11, Paper No. C319/86.
- Al-Hasan, M., “Effect of Ethanol-Unleaded Gasoline Blends on Engine Performance and Exhaust Emission,” Energy Conversion and Management 44(9):1547-1561, 2003.
- Kar, K., Last, T., Haywood, C. et al., “Measurement of Vapor Pressures and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Gasoline and Ethanol Blends and Their Effects on Mixture Preparation in an SI Engine [J],” SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants 1(1):132-144, 2009.
- Catapano, F., Sementa, P., and Vaglieco, B.M., “Air-Fuel Mixing and Combustion Behavior of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in a GDI Wall-Guided Turbocharged Multi-Cylinder Optical Engine,” Renewable Energy 96:319-332, 2016.
- Haenel, P., Kleeberg H., de Bruijn R., and Dean T.. “Influence of Ethanol Blends on Low Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged, Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines.” SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants 10(1) 2017: 95-105.
- Serras-Pereira, J., Aleiferis, P.G., and Richardson, D., “An Experimental Database on the Effects of Single-and Split Injection Strategies on Spray Formation and Spark Discharge in an Optical Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Fuelled with Gasoline, Iso-Octane and Alcohols,” International Journal of Engine Research 16(7):851-896, 2015.
- Neroorkar, K. and Schmidt, D., “A Computational Investigation of Flash-Boiling Multi-Hole Injectors with Gasoline-Ethanol Blends,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0384, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0384.
- Eyidogan, M., Ozsezen, A.N., Canakci, M. et al., “Impact of Alcohol-Gasoline Fuel Blends on the Performance and Combustion Characteristics of an SI Engine [J],” Fuel 89(10):2713-2720, 2010.
- Serras-Pereira, J., Aleiferis, P.G., and Richardson, D., “An Analysis of the Combustion Behavior of Ethanol, Butanol, Iso-Octane, Gasoline, and Methane in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Research Engine [J],” Combustion Science and Technology 185(3):484-513, 2013.
- Cragoe, C.S., Thermal Properties of Petroleum Products: November 9, 1929 [M] (US Government Printing Office, 1929).
- Hsieh, W.D., Chen, R.H., Wu, T.L. et al., “Engine Performance and Pollutant Emission of an SI Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels [J],” Atmospheric Environment 36(3):403-410, 2002.
- Neroorkar, K.D., “Modeling of Flash Boiling Flows in Injectors with Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends [J],” 2011.
- Lemmon, E.W., McLinden, M.O., and Huber, M.L., “Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties,” NIST Standard Database 23 version 7.0, 2002.
- Maples, R.E., Petroleum Refinery Process Economics [M] (Pennwell Books, 2000).
- Aleiferis, P.G., Serras-Pereira, J., Van Romunde, Z., Caine, J. et al., “Mechanisms of Spray Formation and Combustion from a Multi-Hole Injector with E85 and Gasoline,” Combustion and Flame 157(4):735-756, 2010.
- Ghandhi, J.B. and Heim, D.M., “An Optimized Optical System for Backlit Imaging,” Review of Scientific Instruments 80(5):056105, 2009.
- Otsu, N., “A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 9(1):62-66, 1979.
- Araneo, L., “Flash Boiling in a Multihole G-DI Injector-Effects of the Fuel Distillation Curve,” Fuel 191:500-510, 2017.
- Sphicas, P., Pickett, L.M., Skeen, S., Frank, J. et al., “A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse,” SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants 10(1):184-201, 2017.
- Wu, S., Xu, M., Hung, D.L., and Pan, H., “Effects of Nozzle Configuration on Internal Flow and Primary Jet Breakup of Flash Boiling Fuel Sprays,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 110:730-738, 2017.
- Pumphrey, J.A., Brand, J.I., and Scheller, W.A., “Vapour Pressure Measurements and Predictions for Alcohol-Gasoline Blends,” Fuel 79(11):1405-1411, 2000.
- Reid, R.C., Prausnitz, J.M., and Poling, B.E., The Properties of Gases and Liquids (1987).