This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Effects of the Ambient Conditions on the Spray Structure and Evaporation of the ECN Spray G
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 02, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
The use of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) continuously increases due to the growing demand of efficiency and power output for i.c. engines. The optimization of the fuel injection process is essential to prepare an air-fuel mixture capable to promote efficient combustion, reduced fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Good spray atomization facilitates fuel evaporation in i.c. engines thus contributing to the fuel economy and lowering the emissions. One of the key features of a multi-hole injector is to provide an optimal spray pattern in the combustion chamber and a good mixture homogenization considering the engine-specific characteristics such fuel mass-flow rate, cylinder geometry, injector position, and charge motion.
This work aims to investigate the injection processes of an eight-hole direct-injection gasoline injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) effort on gasoline sprays (Spray G, serial #19).
The main objective is to evaluate both liquid and vapor phase envelope to extend the dataset for the Spray G covering a broader operating range. The tests were conducted fluxing iso-octane in a heated constant-volume pressurized vessel. A hybrid optical setup, Z-type schlieren and Mie scattering, using a high-speed C-Mos camera as detector, allowed the acquisition of both the vapor and the liquid phases. A customized image-processing procedure, developed in C# environment, was used for the outline of both the fuel phases. Different morphologies of the fuel spray were studied as function of the injection pressure, the ambient temperature, and the backpressure in the vessel, through the measurement of the spray penetrations, areas, and cone angles.
Results indicate that global spray parameters such as liquid and vapor penetration as well as spray angle are largely affected by charge gas conditions (mainly density). The influences of ambient and injection conditions were of particular interest providing fundamental physics insight regarding fuel penetration and vaporization.
CitationAllocca, L., Montanaro, A., and Meccariello, G., "Effects of the Ambient Conditions on the Spray Structure and Evaporation of the ECN Spray G," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0283, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0283.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|Unnamed Dataset 1|
|Unnamed Dataset 2|
|Unnamed Dataset 3|
- Baumgarten , C. Mixture Formation in Internal Combustion Engines Springer-Verlag 2006 13 978-3-540-30835-5
- Zhang , Y. , Li , S. , Zheng , B. , Wu , J. et al. Quantitative Observation on Breakup of Superheated Liquid Jet using Transparent Slit Nozzle Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 63 84 90 2015 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2015.01.004
- Kale , R. and Banerjee , R. Investigation of Macroscopic as well as Microscopic Spray Behavior of Multi-Hole GDI Injector under Engine Like Hot Injector Body Conditions SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0280 2018 10.4271/2018-01-0280
- Postrioti , L. , Cavicchi , A. , Brizi , G. , Berni , F. et al. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Spray Evolution, Hydraulics and Atomization for a 60 MPa Injection Pressure GDI System SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0271 2018 10.4271/2018-01-0271
- Medina , M. , Fatouraie , M. , and Wooldridge , M. High-Speed Imaging Studies of Gasoline Fuel Sprays at Fuel Injection Pressures from 300 to 1500 bar SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0294 2018 10.4271/2018-01-0294
- Liang , B. , Ge , Y. , Tan , J. , Han , X. et al. Comparison of PM Emissions from a Gasoline Direct Injected (GDI) Vehicle and a Port Fuel Injected (PFI) Vehicle Measured by Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) with Two Fuels: Gasoline and M15 Methanol Gasoline Journal of Aerosol Science 57 22 31 2013 20.1016/j.jaerosci.2012.11.008
- Chen , L. , Liang , Z. , Zhang , X. , and Shuai , S. Characterizing Particulate Matter Emissions from GDI and PFI Vehicles under Transient and Cold Start Conditions Fuel 189 131 140 2017 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.10.055
- Chin , S.T. , Lee , C. , and Fon , F. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Wall Wetting on Hydrocarbon Emissions in Engines Proc. Combust. Inst. 29 767 773 2002
- Serras-Pereira , J. , Aleiferis , P. , and Richardson , D. Imaging and Heat Flux Measurements of Wall Impinging Sprays of Hydrocarbons and Alcohols in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel 91 264 297 2012
- Zhao , F. , Lai , M.C. , and Harrington , D.L. Automotive Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines Progress in Energy Combustion Science 25 5 437 562 1999
- Lefebvre , A.H. Atomization and Sprays New York Taylor & Francis 1989 204
- Jing , D. , Zhao , H. , Li , Y. , Guo , H. et al. Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Fuel Temperature on Spray Collapse and Mixture Formation Characteristics in GDI Engines SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0311, 2018 10.4271/2018-01-0311
- De Boer , C. , Chang , J. , and Shetty , S. Transonic Combustion - A Novel Injection-Ignition System for Improved Gasoline Engine Efficiency SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2110 2010 10.4271/2010-01-2110
- De Boer , C. , Bonar , G. , Sasaki , S. , and Shetty , S. Application of Supercritical Gasoline Injection to a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine for Particulate Reduction SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0257 2013 10.4271/2013-01-0257
- Payri , R. , Salvador , F.J. , Martí-Aldaraví , P. et al. ECN Spray G External Spray Visualization and Spray Collapse Description through Penetration and Morphology Analysis Applied Thermal Engineering 112 304 316 2016
- Sphicas , P. , Pickett , L.M. , Skeen , S. et al. A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct- Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr 10 1 184 201 2017 10.4271/2017-01-0837
- Duke , D.J. , Kastengren , A.L. , Matusik , K.E. et al. Internal and near Nozzle Measurements of Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” Gasoline Direct Injectors Experimental Thermal & Fluid Science 88 608 621 2017
- Montanaro , A. , Allocca , L. , and Lazzaro , M. Iso-Octane Spray from a GDI Multi-Hole Injector under Non- and Flash Boiling Conditions SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-2319 2017 10.4271/2017-01-2319
- Manin , J. , Jung , Y. , Skeen , S. , Pickett , L. et al. Experimental Characterization of DI Gasoline Injection Processes SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1894 2015 10.4271/2015-01-1894
- Moulai , M. , Grover , R. , Parrish , S. , and Schmidt , D. Internal and Near-Nozzle Flow in a Multi-Hole Gasoline Injector Under Flashing and Non-Flashing Conditions SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0944 2015 10.4271/2015-01-0944
- Hung , D. , Harrington , D. , Gandhi , A. , Markle , L. et al. Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 1 1 534 548 2009 10.4271/2008-01-1068
- Paredi , D. , Lucchini , T. , D'Errico , G. , Onorati , A. et al. Combined Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the ECN Spray G under Different Engine-Like Conditions SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0281 2018 10.4271/2018-01-0281
- Efthymiou , P. , Davy , M. , Garner , C. , Hargrave , G. et al. Insights into Cold-Start DISI Combustion in an Optical Engine Operating at -7°C SAE Int. J. Engines 6 2 1059 1074 2013 10.4271/2013-01-1309
- Allocca , L. , Montanaro , A. , Di Gioia , R. , and Bonandrini , G. Spray Characterization of a Single-Hole Gasoline Injector under Flash Boiling Conditions SAE Technical Paper 2014-32-0041 2014 10.4271/2014-32-0041
- Huang , Y. , Huang , S. , Huang , R. , and Hong , G. Spray and Evaporation Characteristics of Ethanol and Gasoline Direct Injection in Non-evaporating, Transitional flash boiling and Flash-boiling Conditions Energy Conversion and Management 108 68 77 2016
- Zeng , W. , Xu , M. , Zhang , G. , Zhang , Y. et al. Atomization and Vaporization for Flash-boiling Multi-Hole Sprays with Alcohol Fuels Fuel 95 287 297 2012