This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
The Effects of Inboard Shoulder Belt and Lap Belt Loadings on Chest Deflection
Published November 12, 2018 by The Stapp Association in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Chest injuries occur frequently in frontal collisions. During impact, tension in the lap belt is transferred to the inboard shoulder belt, which compresses the lower ribs of the occupant. In this research, inboard shoulder belt and lap belt geometries and forces were investigated to reduce chest deflection. First, the inboard shoulder belt geometry was changed by the lap/shoulder belt (L/S) junction for the rear seat occupant in sled tests using Hybrid III finite element simulation, sled tests and THOR simulation. As the L/S junction was closer to the ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine), chest deflection of the Hybrid III was smaller. The L/S junction around the ilium has the potential to reduce chest deflection without significant increase of head excursion. For THOR, although the chest deflection reduction effect due to closer L/S junction to the ASIS was observed, chest deflection was still substantially large since the lap belt overrode the ASIS.
Second, measures to hook the ASIS of the THOR by the lap belt were examined. Sled tests at 30 and 50 km/h were conducted with THOR in the rear seat, and it was demonstrated that the outboard lap belt and buckle pretensioners improved the lap belt and ASIS interaction, and were also useful in reducing the deflection at the inboard-side of the lower chest.
Finally, the lap belt overlap with the ASIS was compared among 10 volunteers, Hybrid III, and THOR. Some volunteers had the ASIS located at the torso-thigh junction, and the lap belt did not overlap the ASIS sufficiently. However, although the ASIS location of THOR is also at the torso-thigh junction, the lap belt overlapped the ASIS because of the abdomen’s and femur’s shape. In the future, it will be necessary to consider that the outboard lap belt and buckle pretensioners are also effective for the ASIS restraint of all human car occupants.
CitationMizuno, K., Yoshida, R., Nakajima, Y., Tanaka, Y. et al., "The Effects of Inboard Shoulder Belt and Lap Belt Loadings on Chest Deflection," SAE Technical Paper 2018-22-0002, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-22-0002.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
- Aldman, B. (1962) Biodynamic studies on impact protection, Acta Physiologica Scandinavia 56 (Supplementum 192).
- Beck, B., Brown, J., Bilston L.E. (2014) Assessment of Vehicle and restraint design changes for mitigating rear seat occupant injuries. Traffic Injury Prevention 15(7):711-719.
- Carroll, J. (2010) Overview of serious thorax injuries in European frontal car crash accidents and implications for crash accidents and implications for crash test dummy development. IRCOBI Conference.
- Digges, K., Dalmotas D., Prasad P. (2017) The need to control belt routing for silver NCAP ratings. The 25th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.
- Eickhoff, B., Shrenk, W., Zellmer, H., Martin, M. (2011) Optimization of seat belt buckle motion for reducing chest deflection, using rib eye sensors. The 22nd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.
- Eickhoff, B., Zellmer, H., Forster, E. (2007) The mechanism of belt induced chest deflection: analysis and possibilities for reduction. The 20th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.
- Eggers, A., Eickhoff, B., Dobberstein, J., Zellmer, H., Adolph, T. (2014) Effects of variations in buckle position, double pretension and adaptive load limiting on advanced chest measurements of THOR and Hybrid III. IRCOBI Conference.
- Guerrero, M., Butala, K., Tangirala, R., Klinkenberger, A. (2014) Comparison of the THOR and Hybrid III responses in oblique impacts, SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 2(2):279-300.
- Håland, Y., and Nilson, G. (1991) Seat belt pretensioners to avoid the risk of submarining – a study of lap belt slippage factors. Proc. 13th International Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles (ESV), pp.1060-1068.
- Hardy, R.N., Watson, J.W., Cook R., Zioupos P., Forrester B., Frampton R., Page M., Kennedy A., Peach S., Sproston P. (2005) Development and assessment of a bone scanning device to enhance restraint performance. The 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.
- Hong, S.W., Park, W., Hong, S. (2013) Thoracic injury characteristics of elderly drivers in real world car accidents. The 24th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.
- Horsch, J.D., Hering, W.E. (1989) A kinematic analysis of lap-belt submarining for test dummies. Proc. 33rd Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 281-288. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Hu, J., Reed, M.P., Rupp, J.D., Fischer, K., Lange, P., Adler, A. (2017) Optimizing seat belt and airbag designs for rear seat occupant protection in frontal crasehes. Stapp Car Crash Journal 661:67-100.
- Hu J., Fischer K., Lange, P., Adler, A. (2015) Effects of crash pulse, impact angle, occupant size, front seat location, and restraint system on rear seat occupant protecion. SAE Technical Paper 2015- 01-1453 .
- Kemper, A.R., Kennedy, E.A., McNally, C., Manoogian, S.J., Stitzel, J.D., Duma, S.M. (2011) Reducing chest injuries in automobile collisions: rib fracture timing and implications for thoracic injury criteria. Annuals of Biomedical Engineering 39(8), 2141-2151, 2011.
- Kent, R., Robert, S., Kerrigan, J., Maltese, M. (2009) Pediatric thoracoabdominal biomechanics. Stapp Car Crash Journal 53:373-401.
- Kent, R., Stacey, S., Kindig, M., Woods, W., Evans, J., Rouhana, S.W., Higuchi, K., Tanji, H., Lawrence, S.S. (2008) Biomechanical response of the pediatric abdomen, part 2: injuries and their correlation with engineering parameters. Stapp Car Crash Journal 52:135-166.
- Kent, R., Lee, S., Darvish, K., Wang, S., Poster, C.S., Lange, A.W., Brede, C., Lange, D., Matsuoka, F. (2005) Structural and material changes in the aging thorax and their role in crash protection for older occupants. Stapp Car Crash Journal 49:231-249.
- Kent, R., Lessley, D., Sherwood, C. (2004) Thoracic response to dynamic, non-impact loading from a hub, distributed belt, diagonal belt, and double diagonal belts. Stapp Car Crash Journal 48:495-519.
- Kent R., Shaw, G., Lessley, D., Crandall, J., Kallieris, D., Svensson, M. (2003) Comparison of belted Hybrid III, THOR and cadaver thoracic responses in oblique frontal and full frontal sled tests. SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1453 .
- Kuppa, S., Saunders, J., Fessahaie, O. (2005) Rear seat occupant protection in frontal crashes. The 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.
- Lee, E., Craig, M., Scarboro, M. (2015) Real-world rib fracture patterns in frontal crashes in different restraint conditions. Traffic Injury Prevention 16(sup2):S115-S123.
- Leung, Y.C., Tarrière, C., Lestrelin, D., Hureau, J., Got, C., Guillon, F., Patel, A. (1982) Submarining injuries of 3 pt. belted occupants in frontal collisions – Description, mechanisms and protection. Proc. 26th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 173-205. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Luet, C., Trosseille, X., Drazétic, P., Potier, P., Vallancien, G. (2012) Kinematics and dynamics of the pelvis in the process of submarining using PMHS sled tests. Stapp Car Crash Journal 56:411-442.
- MacLaughlin, T.F., Sullivan, L.K., O’Connor, C.S. (1989) Experimental investigation of rear seat submarining. Proc. 12th International Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles, pp. 261-271.
- Matsuoka, F., Kumagai, K., Takahashi, H. (1989) Problem and improvement of HIII dummy rib cage feature. Proc. 12th International Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles, pp. 660-664.
- Mertz, H., Horsch, J., Horn, G., Lowne, R. (1991) Hybrid III sternal deflection associated with thoracic injury severities of ccupants restrained with force-limiting shoulder belts. SAE Technical Paper 910812 .
- Mizuno, K., Nezaki, S., Ito, D. (2017) Comparison of chest injury measures of Hybrid III dummy. International Journal of Crashworthiness 22(1):38-48.
- Mroz K., Pipkorn B., Kim H.J., Crandall J. (2017) Investigation of pelvis kinematics for various lap belt positions and an inflatable pelvis restraint cushion using a human body model of a female occupant. The 25th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.
- Nakane, N., Nojiri, M., Maekawa, R., Esaki M., Suzuki, S., Masuda Y., Hitosugi M. (2015) Analysis of abdominal injuries caused by the submarining phenomenon in the rear seat occupants. The 24th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.
- Östling M., Sunnevång C, Svensson C., Kock H.O. (2017) Potential future seating positions and the impact on injury risks in a Learning Intelligent Vehicle (LIV). VDI-Tagung Fahrzeugsicherheit, Berlin, Germany.
- Panzer, M., Giudice, S., Parent, D. (2015) THOR 50th male finite element model, user manual (https://www.nhtsa.gov /biomechanicstrauma/THOR).
- Park, J., Ebert, S.M., Reed, M.P., Hallman, J.J. (2018) Comparison of three-point belt fit between humans and ATDs in rear seats. Traffic Injury Prevention 19(sup1):S65-S69.
- Park, J., Ebert, S.M., Reed, M.P., Hallman, J.J. (2016) Effects of occupant and vehicle factors on three – point belt fit in rear seat. IRCOBI Conference.
- Pipkorn, B, López-Valdés, F.J., Juste-Lorente, O., Insausti, R., Lundgren, C., Sunnevång, C. (2016) Assessment of an innovative seat belt with independent control of the shoulder and lap portions using THOR tests, the THUMS model, and PMHS tests. Traffic Injury Prevention 17(sup1):124-130.
- Pipkorn, B., López-Valdés, F.J., Lundgren C., Bråse D., Sunnevång, C. (2009) Innovative seat belt system for reduced chest deflection. The 21st International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.
- Reed, M.P., Ebert, S.M., Hallman, J.J. (2013) Effects of driver characteristics on seat belt fit. Stapp Car Crash Journal 57:43-57.
- Rouhana, S.W., Horsch, J.D., Kroell, C. (1989) Assessment of lap-shoulder belt restraint performance in laboratory testing. Proc. 33rd Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 243-256. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Rouhana, S.W., Bedewi, P.G., Kankanala, S.V., Prasad, P., Zwolinski, J.J., Meduvsky, A.G., Rupp, J.D., Jeffreys, T.A., Schneider, LW . (2003) Biomechanics of 4-point seat belt systems in frontal impacts Stapp Car Crash Journal 57:47:367-399.
- Schneider, L.W., Haffner, M.P, Eppinger, R.H., Shalloum, M.J., Beebe, M.S., Rouhana, S.W., King, A.I., Hardy, W.H., Neathery, R.F. (1992) Development of an advanced ATD thorax system for improved injury assessment in frontal crash environment. Proc. 36th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 129-155. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Shams, T., Rangarajan, N., McDonald, J., Wang, Y., Platten, G., Shade, C., Pope, P., Haffner, M. (2005) Development of THOR-NT: enhanced of the THOR ALPHA – the NHTSA advanced frontal dummy. The 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.
- Shaw, G., Lessley, D., Ash, J., Acosta, S., Heltzel, S., Riley, P., Kim, T., Crandall, J. (2016). Pelvic Restraint cushion sled test evaluation of pelvic forward motion. Traffic Injury Prevention 19(3): 250-255
- Shaw, G., Crandall, J., Butcher, J. (2000) Biofidelity evaluation of the THOR advanced frontal crash test dummy. IRCOBI Conference.
- Shimamura, M., Ohashi, H., Yamazaki, M. (2003) The effects of occupant age on patterns of rib fractures to belt-restrained drivers and front passengers in frontal crashes in Japan. Stapp Car Crash Journal 47:349-365.
- Subit, D., Boruah, S., Forman, J., Salzar, R., Crandall, J. (2013) Mechanical response of human ribs under antero-posterior bending: rib level variability and strain distribution. Proc. of JSAE Spring Convention, 61-13:1-6.
- Uriot, J., Baudrit, B., Potier, P., Trosseille, X., Petit, P., Guillemot, H., Guérin, L., Vallancien, G. (2006) Investigations on the belt-to-pelvis interaction in case of submaring. Stapp Car Crash Journal 50:53-73.
- Wells, R.P., Norman, R.W., Bishop, P., Ranney, D.A. (1986) Assessment of the static fit of automobile lap-belt systems on front-seat passengers. Ergonomics 29(8):955-976.
- Yaguchi, M., Ono, K., Masuda, M., Watamori, T., Seshita, T., Hibino, T. (2009) Comparison of dynamic responses of the THOR-NT and Hybrid III in offset frontal crash test. The 21st International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.