This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
DC Arc Fault Detection Methods in MEA Distribution Systems
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 30, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Direct current (DC) for primary power distribution is a promising solution that is being explored by aircraft system integrators for MEA applications to enable the paralleling of non-synchronized engine off-take generators, and to enable the reduction of energy conversion stages required to supply electronically actuated loads. However, a significant challenge in the use of DC systems is the reliable detection of arc faults. Arcing presents a significant fire risk to aircraft and their presence can result in critical system damage and potentially fatal conditions. Series arc faults in DC systems are particularly challenging to detect as the associated reduction in system current eliminates the use of conventional overcurrent and current differential methods for fault detection. This paper provides an overview of series arc faults in DC systems and presents both simulation and hardware results to illustrate key trends, characteristics and discriminating features. It also presents a comprehensive review of arc fault detection and diagnosis techniques that have been proposed for a wide range of aerospace and other applications. The paper concludes with a discussion on the unique challenges and opportunities for the application of both deterministic and probabilistic methods in MEA systems.
CitationThomas, J., Telford, R., Rakhra, P., Norman, P. et al., "DC Arc Fault Detection Methods in MEA Distribution Systems," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1934, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-1934.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
- Baran, M.E. and Mahajan, N.R. , “DC Distribution for Industrial Systems: Opportunities and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 39(6):1596-1601, 2003.
- Hammerstrom, D.J. , “AC versus DC Distribution Systems-Did We Get It Right?,” 2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting PES, 2007, 1-5.
- Yaramasu, A., Cao, Y., Liu, G., and Wu, B. , “Aircraft Electric System Intermittent Arc Fault Detection and Location,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 51(1):40-51, 2015.
- Restrepo, C.E. , “Arc Fault Detection and Discrimination Methods,” Electrical Contacts - 2007, 53rd IEEE HOLM Conference, 2007.
- Stokes, A.D. and Oppenlander, W.T. , “Electric Arcs in Open Air,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 24(1):26-35, 1991.
- Kuhn, P.K., Furse, C., and Smith, P. , “Locating Hidden Hazards in Electrical Wiring,” Aged Electrical System Research Application Sympoium, 2006, 1-8.
- Brusso, B.C. , “History of Aircraft Wiring Arc-Fault Protection [History],” IEEE Industry Applications Magazine 23(3):6-11, 2017.
- Li, J., Thomas, D.W.P., Sumner, M., Christopher, E. et al. , “Series Arc Fault Studies and Modeling for a DC Distribution System,” Asia-Pacific Power Energy Engineering Conference APPEEC, 1-6, 2013.
- Telford, R. , “Novel Methods for Improving Fault Protection & Health Management within Advanced Aircraft Electrical Power Systems,” Apr., 2017.
- Uriarte, F.M., Gattozzi, A.L., Herbst, J.D., Estes, H.B. et al. , “A DC Arc Model for Series Faults in Low Voltage Microgrids,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 4:3, 2012.
- Parker, M.T., Ham, Jr. M.H., Keenan, J.J., and Benoit, L.P. , “Electric Arc Monitoring Systems,” U.S. Patent 6772077B1. Aug. 2004.
- Lu, S., Phung, B.T., and Zhang, D. , “Study on DC Series Arc Fault in Photovoltaic Systems for Condition Monitoring Purpose,” Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC), 2017 Australasian, IEEE, 2017, 1-6.
- Liu, G., Cao, Y., Liu, Y., and Liu, Z. , “A Survey on Arc Fault Detection and Wire Fault Location for Aircraft Wiring Systems,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 1(1):903-914, 2009, doi:10.4271/2008-01-2870.
- Land, H.B. , “Sensing Switchboard Arc Faults,” IEEE Power Eng. Rev. 22(4):18-27, 2002.
- Kumpulainen, L., Hussain, G.A., Lehtonen, M., and Kay, J.A. , “Preemptive Arc Fault Detection Techniques in Switchgear and Controlgear,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 49(4):1911-1919, 2013.
- Yang, K., Zhang, R., Yang, J., Liu, C. et al. , “A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires,” Sensors (Switzerland) 16(4):1-24, 2016.
- Vasile, C. and Ioana, C. , “Arc Fault Detection & Localization by Electromagnetic-Acoustic Remote Sensing,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 198(1):1-1, 2017.
- Pellon, C.V., Nicolls, C.A., and Parker, M.T. , “Low Cost Arc Fault Detection Technique,” U.S. Patent 7,400,481, issued July 15, 2008.
- Hull, C.W. , “Apparatus for Production of Three-Dimensional Objects by Stereolithography,” U.S. Patent 4,575,330, vol. 1, no. 12, pp. 1-16, 1986.
- Senger, E.C., Kaiser, W., Santos, J.C., and Burt, P.M.S. , “Communication,” Power 15(2):525-530, 2000.
- Zuercher, J.C. and McClanahan, D.L. , “Apparatus and Method for Real Time Determination of Arc Fault Energy, Location and Type,” U.S. Patent 7,068,045, issued June 27, 2006.
- Blades, F.K. , “Series Arc Fault Diagnostic for Aircraft Wiring,” U.S. Patent 6,882,158, issued Apr. 19, 2005.
- Kilroy, D.G. and Oldenburg, W.H. , “DC Arc Fault Detection and Protection,” Patent EP1796238B1, Jan. 2013.
- Andrea, J., Zirn, O., and Bournat, M. , “Principle of Arc Fault Detection for Solid State Power Controller,” 2012 IEEE 58th Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, 2012, 1-6.
- Sultana, Q., Mishra, P., and Chary, S. , “Novel Control Methodology for Detecting Series Arc in DC Circuits,” 2017 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Direct Current Microgrids, ICDCM 2017, 2017, 12-17.
- Chen, S., Zhu, L., Ji, S., and Liu, X. , “Detection of Series DC Arc Fault Using Rogowski Coil,” 2017 IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomenon (CEIDP).
- Scott, G.W. and Wong, K.B. , “Arc Fault Detection for Aircraft,” U.S. Patent 6625550 B1, Sept. 2003.
- Kwon, W.H. and Lee, G.W. , “Power System Relaying High Impedance Fault Detection Utilizing Incremental Variance of Normalized Even Order Harmonic Power,” IEEE Power Eng. Rev. 11(4):58-59, 1991.
- Cai, X., Li, W., Sun, Q., and Zhen, M. , “AC Arc Fault Detection Based on Mahalanobis Distance,” 15th International Power Electronics Motion Control Conference and Exposition, EPE-PEMC 2012 ECCE Europe, 2012, 1-6.
- Guo, S.Y., Jones III, J.L., and Dooley, A.S. , “DC Arc Detection and Prevention Circuit and Method,” U.S. Patent 6683766B1, Jan. 2004.
- Dargatz, M. and Fornage, M. , “Method and Apparatus for Detection and Control of Dc Arc Faults,” U.S. Patent 8179147B2, May 2012.
- Zuercher, J., Hastings, J., Hetzmannseder, E., Pardee, J. et al. , “Detection of Arcing in Dc Electrical Systems,” U.S. Patent 20040027749A1, Feb. 2004.
- Kojori, H., Li, C., and Dawson, F. , “Method and Apparatus for Generalized Arc Fault Detection,” U.S. Patent 20060203401A1, Sept. 2006.
- Ohta, Y. and Isoda, H. , “ARC Detecting Device and Aircraft Equipped Therewith,” Patent EP2120306A2, Nov. 2009.
- Momoh, J.A. and Button, R. , “Design and Analysis of Aerospace DC Arcing Faults Using Fast Fourier Transformation and Artificial Neural Network,” IEEE 2003 Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2003, Vol. 2, IEEE, 788-793.
- Gao, Y., Dong, J., Sun, Y., Lin, Y. et al. , “PV Arc-Fault Feature Extraction and Detection Based on Bayesian Support Vector Machines,” Int. J. Smart Grid Clean Energy 283-290, 2015.
- Chen, M. et al. , “Detection Method of Low Voltage Series DC Arc Based on the Pattern Matching Algorithm,” 2017 20th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS 2017), 2017.
- Chen, S., Li, X., and Xiong, J. , “Series Arc Fault Identification for Photovoltaic System Based on Time-Domain and Time-Frequency-Domain Analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(4):1105-1114, 2017.
- Yunmei, G., Li, W., Zhuoqi, W., and Binfeng, J. , “Wavelet Packet Analysis Applied in Detection of Low-Voltage DC Arc Fault,” 2009 4th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Application (ICIEA 2009), 2009, Vol. 2, 1, 4013-4016.
- Yao, X., Herrera, L., and Wang, J. , “A Series DC Arc Fault Detection Method and Hardware Implementation,” 2013 Twenty-Eighth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2013, 2444-2449.
- Telford, R.D., Galloway, S., Stephen, B., and Elders, I. , “Diagnosis of Series DC Arc Faults-A Machine Learning Approach,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Informatics 13(4):1598-1609, 2017.