This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Development of Highly Durable Zeolites as Hydrocarbon Trap Materials for Automotive Catalysts
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Low-temperature activity is an important requirement for automotive catalysts. In particular, most of the tailpipe emissions occur right after the engine starts (cold emissions). These emissions can be effectively reduced by using a trap material such as zeolite for hydrocarbon (HC) adsorption [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. However, using zeolite as a trap material in automotive catalyst is limited due to its low durability under hydrothermal aging conditions. That is the reason why zeolites can be often used for diesel engines which usually run at lower temperature than the gasoline engines during entire mode driving. In most cases, zeolites need to be placed away from large thermal loads in order to take advantage of their adsorption abilities. In general, the thermal endurance of close-coupled catalysts for gasoline powered vehicles proceeds at about 1000 °C in the presence of water. Under these conditions, the zeolite structure would be decomposed by the dissociation of aluminum from the zeolite frameworks . Through this study, we show that the hydrothermal durability of zeolite can be dramatically improved by chemical modification of zeolite with zirconium phosphate. This improvement strategy works well, especially for β-type zeolites (BEAs) with low SiO2/Al2O3 ratio, which can be easily decomposed by hydrothermal aging at around 1000 °C. We also found that this modified BEA worked well as HC trap material and showed an enormous reduction of cold HC emissions with Pd/Rh three-way catalyst (TWC). In the engine test evaluations with the close-coupled TWC + TWC and TWC + HC trap system as aged catalysts, effects of this HC trap catalyst on cold emissions were observed. It is found that HC emission decrease by up to 43% when compared to those from the corresponding TWC + TWC system which does not have any zeolite. In addition, a detailed analysis of this effect proved this improvement to be due to the adsorption-desorption process of zeolite and the purification process by TWCs.
- Masataka Ogasawara - Akita University
- Sumio Kato - Akita University
- Yoshinori Endo - Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd.
- Joe Nishikawa - Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd.
- Hironori Iwakura - Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd.
- Masaaki Inamura - Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd.
- Takashi Wakabayashi - Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd.
- Yuunosuke Nakahara - Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd.
CitationEndo, Y., Nishikawa, J., Iwakura, H., Inamura, M. et al., "Development of Highly Durable Zeolites as Hydrocarbon Trap Materials for Automotive Catalysts," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0947, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0947.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|Unnamed Dataset 1|
|Unnamed Dataset 2|
|Unnamed Dataset 3|
|Unnamed Dataset 4|
- Heimrich , M.J. and Smith , L.R. Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Collection for Advanced Exhaust Emission Control SAE Technical Paper 920847 1992 10.4271/920847
- Engler , B.H. , Lindner , D. , Lox , E.S. , Ostgathe , K. , et al. Reduction of Exhaust Gas Emissions by Using Hydrocarbon Adsorber System SAE Technical Paper 930738 1993 10.4271/930738
- Burk , P. , Hochmuth , A. , Anderson , J. , Sung , D. , et al. Cold Start Hydrocarbon Emission Control SAE Technical Paper 950410 1995 10.4271/950410
- Hertl , W. , Patil , M.D. , and Williams , J.L. Hydrocarbon Adsorber System for Cold Start Emission SAE Technical Paper 960347 1996 10.4271/960347
- Noda , N. , Takahashi , A. , and Mizuno , H. In-Line Hydrocarbon (HC) Adsorber System for Cold Start Emission SAE Technical Paper 970266 1997 10.4271/970266
- Ballinger , T. , Manning , W. , and Lafyatis , D. Hydrocarbon Trap Technology for the Reduction of Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Emission SAE Technical Paper 970741 1997 10.4271/970741
- Madhusoodana , C. , Das , R. , and Okada , K. Investigations of the Zeolite Formation on Ceramic Honeycombs for HC Adsorption in the Cold Start Emission Control SAE Technical Paper 2001-26-0020 2001 10.4271/2001-26-0020
- Higashiyama , K. , Nagayama , T. , Nagano , M. , Nakagawa , S. , et al. A Catalyzed Hydrocarbon Trap Using Metal-Impregnated Zeolite for SULEV Systems SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0815 2003 10.4271/2003-01-0815
- Lupescu , J. , Chanko , T. , Richert , J. , and Mauti , A. The Effect of Spark Timing on Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Specification and Hydrocarbon Trap Performance SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1098 2009 10.4271/2009-01-1098
- Kostek , T. and Franchek , M. Aging of Zeolite Based Automotive Hydrocarbon Trap SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1058 2007 10.4271/2007-01-1058
- Sampara , G.S. , Bissett , E.J. , and Assanis , D. Hydrocarbon Storage Modeling for Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Chemical Engineering Science 63 5179 5192 2008 10.1016/j.ces.2008.06.021
- Yamamoto , S. , Matsushita , K. , Etoh , S. , and Takaya , M. I-Line Hydrocarbon (HC) Adsorber System for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0892 2000 10.4271/2000-01-0892
- Hiramoto , Y. , Takaya , M. , Yamamoto , S. , and Okada , A. Development of a New HC-Adsorption Three-Way Catalyst System for Partial-ZEV Performance SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-1861 2003 10.4271/2003-01-1861
- Caro , J. , Bülow , M. , Hunger , M. , Pfeifer , H. , et al. NMR and IR Studies of Zeolite H-ZSM-5 Modified with Orthophosphoric Acid Journal of Catalysis 124 367 375 1990 10.1016/0021-9517(90)90185-M
- Gang , Y. , Janqin , Z. , Yan , W. , and Danhong , Z. Enhancement on the Hydrothermal Stability of ZSM-5 Zeolites by the Cooperation Effect of Exchanged Lanthanum and Phosphoric Species Journal of Molecular Structure 737 271 276 2005 10.1016/j.molstruc.2004.11.018
- Endo , Y , Nishikawa J. , Iwakura H. , Inamura , M. , et al. Improvement of Automotive Catalysts at Low Temperature with Highly Durable Zeolites The 8th Japan-China Workshop on Environmental Catalysis and Eco-Materials KL-2 2017