This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Combined Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the ECN Spray G under Different Engine-Like Conditions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
A detailed understanding of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) techniques applied to spark-ignition (SI) engines is necessary as they allow for many technical advantages such as increased power output, higher fuel efficiency and better cold start performances. Within this context, the extensive validation of multi-dimensional models against experimental data is a fundamental task in order to achieve an accurate reproduction of the physical phenomena characterizing the injected fuel spray. In this work, simulations of different Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G conditions were performed with the Lib-ICE code, which is based on the open source OpenFOAM technology, by using a RANS Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to model the ambient gas-fuel spray interaction. Foremost, the main scope of the activity was to identify the most accurate numerical set-up in terms of atomization ad secondary break-up models, thanks to a validation of the computed results against experimental data available for the ECN Spray G baseline condition. Specifically, attention was focused on spray penetration along with an analysis of spray morphology and effects of plume-to-plume interaction. Afterwards, the reference set-up was tested and validated under different operating conditions, characterized by detailed experimental measurements specifically provided for this work. In particular, Mie scattering and Schlieren techniques allowed the quasi-simultaneous acquisition of both vapor and liquid penetrations, while a customized image-processing procedure, developed in Matlab environment, was used for the outline of the spray contours of both fuel phases to measure the parameters characterizing the jet development. A robust reference numerical set-up was identified, capable to reproduce with good accuracy the injection process of a multi-hole GDI spray under the wide range of tested operating conditions.
CitationParedi, D., Lucchini, T., D'Errico, G., Onorati, A. et al., "Combined Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the ECN Spray G under Different Engine-Like Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0281, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0281.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 7]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 8]|
- Koch, P., Loffler, M.G., Wensing, M., and Leipertz, A. , “Study of the Mixture Formation Processes inside a Modern Direct Injection Gasoline Engine,” International Journal of Engine Research 11:455-471, 2010, doi:10.1243/14680874JER606.
- Zeng, W., Sjoberg, M., and Reuss, D.L. , “Combined Effects of Flow/Spray Interactions and EGR on Combustion Variability for a Stratified DISI Engine,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 35(3):2907-2914, 2015.
- Zeng, W., Sjoberg, M., Reuss, D.L., and Hu, Z ., “The Role of Spray-Enhanced Swirl Flow for Combustion Stabilization in a Stratified Charge DISI Engine,” Combustion and Flame 168:, 166 to 185, June 2016.
- Parrish, S. , “Evaluation of Liquid and Vapor Penetration of Sprays from a Multi-Hole Gasoline Fuel Injector Operating under Engine-Like Conditions,” SAE Int. J. Engines 7(2):1017-1033, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1409.
- Zhao, F., Harrington, D.L., and Lai, M.-C.D., Automotive Gasoline Direct Injection Engines. Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, PA, ISBN:978-0-7680-0882-1, 2002.
- Park, S.W., Kim, H.J., and Lee, C.S . An Experimental and Numerical Study on Atomization Characteristics of Gasoline Injector for Direct Injection Engines. 15th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Madison, May 2002.
- Fansler, T.D., Drake, M.C., Gajdeczko, B., Duwel, L. et al. , “Quantitative Liquid and Vapor Distribution Measurements in Evaporating Fuel Sprays Using Laser-Induced Exciplex Fluorescence,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20:125401, 2009, doi:10.1088/0957-0233/20/12/125401.
- Parrish, S.E., Zhang, G., and Zink, R.J. , “Liquid and Vapor Envelopes of Sprays from a Multi-Hole Fuel Injector Operating under Closely-Spaced Double-Injection Conditions,” SAE Int. J. Engines 5(2):400-414, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0462.
- Blessinger, M., Meijer, M., Pickett, L.M. et al. , “Liquid/Vapor Penetration and Plume-Plume Interaction of Vaporizing Iso-Octane and Ethanol SIDI Sprays,” 25th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Pittsburg, May 2013.
- Sphicas, P., Pickett, L.M., Skeen, S.A., and Frank, J.H. , “Inter-Plume Aerodynamics for Gasoline Spray Collapse,” Int. J. Engine Research, 2016, 2016, Submitted.
- Itani, L.M., Bruneaux, G., Hermant, L., and Schulz, C. , “Investigation of the Mixing Process and the Fuel Mass Concentration Fields for a Gasoline Direct-Injection Spray at ECN Spray G Conditions and Variants,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1902 , 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1902.
- Parrish, S.E. and Zink, R.J. , “Spray Characteristics of Multi-Hole Injectors under Flash Boiling Conditions,” ILASS Americas 2008, 2008.
- Zeng, W., Xu, M., Zhang, G., Zhang, Y. et al. , “Atomization and Vaporization for Flash-Boiling Multi-Hole Sprays with Alcohol Fuels,” Fuel 95:28797, 2012.
- Saha, K., Som, S., Battistoni, M., Li, Y. et al. , “Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Evolution of In- and Near-Nozzle Regions of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine during Needle Transients,” SAE Int. J. Engines 9(2):1230-1240, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0870.
- Moulai, M., Grover, R., Parrish, S., and Schmidt, D. , “Internal and Near-Nozzle Flow in a Multi-Hole Gasoline Injector under Flashing and Non-Flashing Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0944 , 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0944.
- Baldwin, E.T., Grover, R., Parrish, S.E., Duke, D.J. et al. , “String Flash-Boiling in Gasoline Direct Injection Simulations with Transient Needle Motion,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 87:90-101, 2016.
- Saha, K., Quan, S., Battistoni, M., Som, S. et al. , “Coupled Eulerian Internal Nozzle Flow and Lagrangian Spray Simulations for GDI Systems,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0834 , 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0834.
- Rutland, C.J. , “Large-Eddy Simulations for Internal Combustion Engines - A Review,” International Journal of Engine Research 12:421-451, 2011, doi:10.1177/1468087411407248.
- Bode, M., Falkenstein, T., Le Chenadec, V., Kang, S. et al. , “A New Euler/Lagrange Approach for Multiphase Simulations of a Multi-Hole GDI Injector,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0949 , 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0949.
- Payri, R., Salvador, F.J., Mart-Aldarav, P., and Vaquerizo, D. , “ECN Spray G External Spray Visualization and Spray Collapse Description through Penetration and Morphology Analysis,” Applied Thermal Engineering 112:304-316, 2017, doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.10.023.
- Sphicas, P., Pickett, L., Skeen, S., Frank, J. et al. , “A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 10(1):184-201, 2017.
- Manin, J., Jung, Y., Skeen, S.A., Pickett, L.M. et al. , “Experimental Characterization of DI Gasoline Injection Processes,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1894 , 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1894.
- Strek, P., Duke, D., Swantek, A., Kastengren, A. et al. , “X-Ray Radiography and CFD Studies of the Spray G Injector,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0858 , 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0858.
- Payri, R., Gimeno, J., Marti-Aldaravi, P., and Vaquerizo, D. , “Momentum Flux Measurements on an ECN GDI Injector,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1893 , 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1893.
- Allocca, L., Montanaro, A., Di Gioia, R., and Bonandrini, G. , “Spray Characterization of a Single-Hole Gasoline Injector under Flash Boiling Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-32-0041 , 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-32-0041.
- Montanaro, A., Allocca, L., and Lazzaro, M. , “Iso-Octane Spray from a GDI Multi-Hole Injector under Non- and Flash Boiling Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-2319 , 2017.
- Subramaniam, S. , “Lagrangian/Eulerian Methods for Multiphase Flows,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University.
- Huh, K.Y. and Gosman, A.D. , “A Phenomenological Model of Diesel Spray Atomization,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Multiphase Flows, Tsukuba, 1991.
- Huh, K.Y., Lee, E., and Koo, J. , “Diesel Spray Atomization Model Considering Nozzle Exit Turbulence Conditions,” Atomization and Spray 8(4):453-469, 1998.
- Reitz, R.D. , “Modeling Atomization Processes in High Pressure Vaporizing Sprays,” Atomization and Spray Technology 3:309-337, 1987.
- Reitz, R.D. and Diwakar, R. , “Structure of High-Pressure Sprays,” SAE Technical Paper 870598 , 1987, doi:10.4271/870598.
- Baumgarten, C. , “Mixture Formation in Internal Combustion Engines,” (Springer).
- Faeth, G.M., Hsiang, L.P., and Wu, P.K. , “Structure and Breakup Properties of Sprays,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21:99-127, 1995.
- Stiesch, G. , “Modeling Engine Spray and Combustion Processes,” (Springer).
- Pilch, M., and Erdman, C.A. , “Use of Breakup Time Data and Velocity History Data to Predict the Maximum Size of Stable Fragments for Acceleration-Induced Breakup of a Liquid Drop,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 13, 1987(6):741-757, 1987.
- Jeong, S.J., Oh, S.D., Lee, H.K., Park, J.K. et al. , “Research and Development of a 2.9 Liter Light-Duty DME Truck Using Common Rail Fuel Injection System,” KSAE 2011 Annual Conference, KSAE11-A0073, 2011.
- Torelli, R., D’Errico, G., Lucchini, T., Ikonomou, V., and McDavid, R.M. , “A Spherical Volume Interaction DDM Approach for Diesel Spray Modeling,” Atomization and Sprays 25(4):335-374, 2015.
- Garcia-Oliver, J., Pastor, J., Pandal, A., Trask, N. et al. , “Diesel Spray CFD Simulations Based on the Σ-y Eulerian Atomization Model,” Atomization and Sprays 23:71-95, 2013.
- Lucchini, T., D’Errico, G., Onorati, A., Bonandrini, G. et al. , “Development and Application of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Methodology to Predict Fuel-Air Mixing and Sources of Soot Formation in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines,” International Journal of Engine Research, 2013, doi:10.1177/1468087413500297.
- Hammer, J., Kufferath, A., and Wehmeier, K. , “Modern GDI Combustion Systems with Focus on Fuel Metering Technology Fulfilling Future Emission Legislation,” SIA Conference: The Spark ignition Ingine of the Future, Strasbourg, 30 Nov-1 Dec 2011.