This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Spray Evolution, Hydraulics and Atomization for a 60 MPa Injection Pressure GDI System
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
In recent years, the GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) technology has significantly spread over the automotive market under the continuous push toward the adoption of combustion systems featuring high thermodynamic conversion efficiency and moderate pollutant emissions. Following this path, the injection pressure level has been progressively increased from the initial 5-15 MPa level nowadays approaching 35 MPa. The main reason behind the progressive injection pressure increase in GDI engines is the improved spray atomization, ensuring a better combustion process control and lower soot emissions. On the other hand, increasing injection pressure implies more power absorbed by the pumping system and hence a penalty in terms of overall efficiency. Therefore, the right trade-off has to be found between soot formation tendency reduction thanks to improved atomization and the energetic cost of a high pressure fuel injection system.
In this paper, a 5-hole, side-mounted prototype GDI injector was tested in a wide range of injection pressure conditions - from 5 up to 60 MPa - in terms of injection rate and spray development. The injection rate was detected by means of a Zeuch-method-based Injection Analyzer. The spray global shape was investigated by high speed imaging, while the atomization level and droplet velocity were measured by means of a PDA (Phase Doppler Anemometry) system over several measuring stations from 20 to 50 mm downstream the nozzle.
A numerical model of the spray was developed and validated against the experimental data in order to simulate the spray penetration, cone angle and atomization over a wide range of injection pressure levels. The results show that the decreasing trend for the drops SMD (Sauter Mean Diameter) from 5 up to 60 MPa approaches its asymptote, suggesting an adequate cost/benefits analysis in terms of soot reduction for further injection pressure level increases.
CitationPostrioti, L., Cavicchi, A., Brizi, G., Berni, F. et al., "Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Spray Evolution, Hydraulics and Atomization for a 60 MPa Injection Pressure GDI System," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0271, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0271.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|Unnamed Dataset 1|
|Unnamed Dataset 2|
|Unnamed Dataset 3|
|Unnamed Dataset 4|
|Unnamed Dataset 5|
- Baumgarten , C. Mixture Formation in Internal Combustion Engines Springer-Verlag 2006 13 978-3-540-30835-5
- Mitroglou , N. , Nouri , J. , Yan , Y. , Gavaises , M. et al. Spray Structure Generated by Multi-Hole Injectors for Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1417 2007 10.4271/2007-01-1417
- Zeng , W. , Xu , M. , Zhang , M. , Zhang , Y. et al. Macroscopic Characteristics for Direct-Injection Multi-Hole Sprays Using Dimensionless Analysis Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 40 81 92 2012
- Postrioti , L. , Bosi , M. , Mariani , A. , and Ungaro , C. Momentum Flux Spatial Distribution and PDA Analysis of a GDI Spray SAE Technical Papers 2012-01-0459 2012 10.4271/2012-01-0459
- Hoffmann , G. , Befrui , B. , Berndorfer , A. , Piock , W. et al. Fuel System Pressure Increase for Enhanced Performance of GDi Multi-Hole Injection Systems SAE Int. J. Engines 7 1 519 527 2014 10.4271\2014-01-1209
- Husted , H. , Spegar , T. , and Spakowski , J. The Effects of GDi Fuel Pressure on Fuel Economy SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1438 2014 10.4271/2014-01-1438
- Wang , C. , Xu , H. , Herreros , J.M. , Wang , J. et al. Impact of Fuel and Injection System on Particle Emissions from a GDI Engine Applied Energy 132 178 191 2014
- Lee , S. and Park , S. Experimental Study on Spray Break-Up and Atomization Processes from GDI Injector Using High Injection Pressure up to 30 MPa International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 45 1 14 22 2014
- Li , Y. , Guo , H. , Ma , X. , Wang , J. et al. Droplet Dynamics of DI Spray from Sub-Atmospheric to Elevated Ambient Pressure Fuel 179 25 35 2016
- Moon , S. , Li , T. , Sato , K. , and Yokohata , H. Governing Parameters and Dynamics of Turbulent Spray Atomization from Modern GDI Injectors Energy 127 89 100 2017
- Giussani , F. , Montorfano , A. , Piscaglia , F. , Onorati , A. et al. Dynamic VOF Modelling of the Internal Flow in GDI Fuel Injectors Energy Procedia 101 574 581 2016
- Malaguti , S. , Fontanesi , S. , Cantore , G. , Montanaro , A. et al. Modelling of Primary Breakup Process of a Gasoline Direct Engine Multi-Hole Spray Ammonization and Sprays 23 10 861 888 2013
- Schmitz , I. , Ipp , W. , and Leipertz , A. Flash Boiling Effects on the Development of Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine Sprays SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-2661 2002 10.4271/2002-01-2661
- Ibrahim , E.A. , Yang , H.Q. , and Przekwas , A.J. Modeling of Spray Droplets Deformation and Breakup Journal of Propulsion and Power 9 4 651 654 1993
- Arcoumanis , C. , Gavaises , M. , Argueyrolles , B. , and Galzin , F. Modeling of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for GDI Engines SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0500 1999 10.4271/1999-01-0500
- Banerjee , R. and Kumar , S. Numerical Investigation of Stratified Air/Fuel Preparation in a GDI Engine Applied Thermal Engineering 104 414 442 2016
- Giovannoni , N. , D'Adamo , A. , Nardi , L. , and Cantore , G. Effects of Fuel Composition on Charge Preparation, Combustion and Knock Tendency in a High Performance GDI Engine, Part I: RANS Analysis Energy Procedia 81 805 816 2015
- D'Adamo , A. , Giovannoni , N. , Nardi , L. , Cantore , G. et al. Effects of Fuel Composition on Charge Preparation, Combustion and Knock Tendency in a High Performance GDI Engine, Part II: LES Analysis Energy Procedia 81 817 825 2015
- Giovannoni , N. , Breda , S. , Paltrinieri , S. , D'Adamo , A. et al. CFD Analysis of the Effects of Fuel Composition and Injection Strategy on Mixture Preparation and Fuel Deposit Formation in a GDI Engine SAE Technical Paper 2015-24-2408 2015 10.4271/2015-24-2408
- Zeuch , W.
- Postrioti , L. , Buitoni , G. , Pesce , F.C. , and Ciaravino , C. Zeuch Method-Based Injection Rate Analysis of a Common-Rail System Operated with Advanced Injection Strategies Fuel 128 188 198 2014
- Postrioti , L. , Caponeri , G. , and Buitoni , G. Injection Rate Measurement of GDI Systems Operating against Sub-Atmospheric and Pressurized Downstream Conditions SAE Technical Papers 2017-24-0110 2017 10.4271/2017-24-0110
- Postrioti , L. , Bosi , M. , Cavicchi , A. , Zahra , F.A. et al. Momentum Flux Measurement on Single-Hole GDI Injector under Flash-Boiling Condition SAE Technical Papers 2015-24-2480 2015 10.4271/2015-24-2480
- Cavicchi , A. , Postrioti , L. , Giovannoni , N. , Fontanesi , S. et al. Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Spray Momentum Flux Measuring on a GDI Injector Fuel 206 614 627 2017
- SAEJ2715 2007
- Han , Z. and Reitz , R.D. Turbulence Modeling of Internal Combustion Engines Using RNG κ-ε Models Combustion Science Technology 106 267 1995
- Yakhot , V. and Orszag , S.A. Renormalization Group Analysis of Turbulence. I. Basic Theory Journal of Science Computing 1 3 51 1986
- Linstrom , P.J. and Mallard , W.G. NIST Chemistry WebBook Gaithersburg National Institute of Standards and Technology 10.18434/T4D303 December 28 2017
- Senda , J. , Kanda , T. , Al-Roub , M. , Farrell , P. et al. Modeling Spray Impingement Considering Fuel Film Formation on the Wall SAE Technical Paper 970047 1997 10.4271/970047
- Habchi , C. , Foucart , H. , and Baritaud , T. Influence of the Wall Temperature on the Mixture Preparation in di Gasoline Engines Oil & Gas Science and Technology-Revue IFP 54 2 211 222 1999
- Reitz , R. and Diwakar , R. Effect of Drop Breakup on Fuel Sprays SAE Technical Paper 860469 1986 10.4271/860469
- von Kuensberg Sarre , C. , Kong , S. , and Reitz , R. Modeling the Effects of Injector Nozzle Geometry on Diesel Sprays SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0912 1999 10.4271/1999-01-0912