This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Study of CO2/Hydrocarbons Mixture as the Working Fluids for Engine Waste Heat Recovery
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Transcritical Rankine cycle (TRC) is a promising technology for the engine waste heat recovery due to its good temperature matching ability for the waste heat sources. As for the high-temperature engine exhaust, working fluids selection has been an essential issue without a good solution. It was found in this research that mixtures of CO2 and small molecule hydrocarbons are the potential working fluids for the engine waste heat recovery, since they have good chemical stability and thermal performance. Besides, CO2 can be used as the retardant to suppress the flammability of hydrocarbons to ensure safety. In this research, CO2 mixed with five small molecule hydrocarbons are proposed as the working fluids. A thermodynamic model of TRC system is established to evaluate the thermal performance of those mixtures. The effects of mass fraction of CO2, turbine inlet temperature and pressure are investigated. The influence of composition shift is also discussed. The results show that, 65% CO2 in the mixtures is a tremendous improvement for the system safety, comparing to pure hydrocarbons. Compared with the pure CO2 TRC system, the thermal performance of the system can be effectively improved by mixing appropriate hydrocarbons with CO2, and the operation pressure can be decreased, which is beneficial for the future application. Take CO2/n-Pentane for example, the thermal efficiency and net power output can reach up to 16.4% and 16.06 kW, increasing by 34.4% and 13.3% compared with pure CO2. And the composition shift of those mixtures has little effect on the performance of TRC, but can improve the TRC system safety.
CitationShu, G., Yan, N., Zhao, M., and Li, L., "Study of CO2/Hydrocarbons Mixture as the Working Fluids for Engine Waste Heat Recovery," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0049, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0049.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
- Siddiqi, M.A. and Atakan, B., “Alkanes as Fluids in Rankine Cycles in Comparison to Water, Benzene and Toluene,” Energy 45(1):256-263, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.energy.2012.06.005.
- Lai, N.A., Wendland, M., and Fischer, J., “Working Fluids for High-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycles,” Energy 36(1):199-211, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.energy.2010.10.051.
- Shu, G., Li, X., Tian, H., Liang, X. et al., “Alkanes as Working Fluids for High-Temperature Exhaust Heat Recovery of Diesel Engine Using Organic Rankine Cycle,” Applied Energy 119:204-217, 2014, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.12.056.
- Chen, Y., Lundqvist, P., and Platell, P., “Theoretical Research of Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Application in Automobile Industry to Reduce Vehicle’s Fuel Consumption,” Applied Thermal Engineering 25(14):2041-2053, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appltherma.leng.2005.02.001.
- Farzaneh-Gord, M., Mirmohammadi, A.S., Behi, M., and Yahyaie, A., “Heat Recovery from a Natural Gas Powered Internal Combustion Engine by CO2 Transcritical Power Cycle,” Thermal Science 14(4):897-911, 2010.
- Shu, G., Shi, L., Tian, H., Li, X. et al., “An Improved CO2-Based transcritical Rankine Cycle (CTRC) Used for Engine Waste Heat Recovery,” Applied Energy 176:171-182, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.05.053.
- Song, J. and Gu, C.-w., “Analysis of ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) Systems with Pure Hydrocarbons and Mixtures of Hydrocarbon and Retardant for Engine Waste Heat Recovery,” Applied Thermal Engineering 89(Supplement C):693-702, 2015, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.06.055.
- Wu, W., Zhao, L., and Ho, T., “Experimental Investigation on Pinch Points and Maximum Temperature Differences in a Horizontal Tube-in-Tube Evaporator Using Zeotropic Refrigerants,” Energy Conversion and Management 56(Supplement C):22-31, 2012, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2011.11.009.
- Chys, M., van denBroek, M., Vanslambrouck, B., and De Paepe, M., "Potential of Zeotropic Mixtures as Working Fluids in Organic Rankine Cycles," Energy 44(1):623-632, 2012, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.05.030.
- Garg, P., Kumar, P., Srinivasan, K., and Dutta, P., “Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Blends with Isopentane and Propane as Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles,” Applied Thermal Engineering 52(2):439-448, 2013, doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2012.11.032.
- Dai, B., Li, M., and Ma, Y., “Thermodynamic Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Blends with Low GWP (Global Warming Potential) Working Fluids-Based Transcritical Rankine Cycles for Low-Grade Heat Energy Recovery,” Energy 64:942-952, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.energy.2013.11.019.
- Chen, H., Goswami, D.Y., Rahman, M.M., and Stefanakos, E.K., “A Supercritical Rankine Cycle Using Zeotropic Mixture Working Fluids for the Conversion of Low-Grade Heat into Power,” Energy 36(1):549-555, 2011, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.10.006.
- Heberle, F., Preissinger, M., and Bruggemann, D., “Zeotropic mixtures as working fluids in Organic Rankine Cycles for low-enthalpy geothermal resources,” Renewable Energy. 37(1):364-370, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.renene.2011.06.044.
- Zhou, Y., Zhang, F., and Yu, L., “Performance Analysis of the Partial Evaporating Organic Rankine Cycle (PEORC) Using Zeotropic Mixtures,” Energy Conversion and Management 129(Supplement C):89-99, 2016, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.en.conman.2016.10.009.
- Zhao, L. and Bao, J., “The Influence of Composition Shift on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with Zeotropic Mixtures,” Energy Conversion and Management 83:203-211, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2014.03.072.
- Chen, J. and Kruse, H., “Concentration Shift Simulation for the Mixed Refrigerants R-404A, R-32/134a, and R-407C in an Air Conditioning System,” HVAC&R Research 3(2):149-157, 1997, doi:10.1080/10789669.1997.10391368.
- Chen, J., “The Use of Mixed Refrigerants to Save Power in Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds, 1992.
- Youbi-Idrissi, M., Bonjour, J., and Meunier, F., “Local Shifts of the Fluid Composition in a Simulated Heat Pump Using R-407C,” Applied Thermal Engineering 25(17-18):2827-2841, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2005.02.005.
- Xu, X., Liu, J., Cao, L., and Li, Z., “Local Composition Shift of Mixed Working Fluid in Gas-Fiquid Flow with Phase Transition,” Applied Thermal Engineering 39:179-187, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2012.01.064.
- ASHRAE, “ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013, Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants,” Atlanta, 2013.
- ISO, “Refrigerants-Designation and Safety Classification,” ISO/FDIS 817-2013, Switzerland, 2013.
- Le Chatelier, H. and Boudouard, O., “Limits of Flammability of Gaseous Mixtures,” Bull. Soc. Chim. (Paris) 19:483-488, 1898.
- Lewis, B. and Elbe, G.v., “APPENDIX A - Data for Thermochemical Calculations.” In: Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases. Third Edition. (San Diego, Academic Press, 1987), 693-702.
- Pilcher, G. and Chadwick, J.D.M., “Measurements of Heats of Combustion by Flame Calorimetry. Part 4.-n-Pentane, Isopentane, Neopentane,” Transactions of the Faraday Society 63(0):2357-2361, 1967, doi:10.1039/TF9676302357.
- Coward, H.F. and Jones, G.W., Limits of Flammability of Gases and Vapors (Washington DC, Bureau of Mines, 1952).
- Smith, S., “Void Fractions in Two-Phase Flow: A Correlation Based upon an Equal Velocity Head Model,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 184(1):647-664, 1969.
- Bergman, T.L. and Incropera, F.P., Introduction to Heat Transfer (New York, John Wiley & Sons, 2011).
- Petukhov, B., Krasnoshchekov, E., and Protopopov, V., “An Investigation of Heat Transfer to Fluids Flowing in Pipes under Supercritical Conditions,” ASME International Developments in Heat Transfer Part 3:569-578, 1961.
- Shah, M.M., “A General Correlation for Heat Transfer during Film Condensation inside Pipes,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 22(4):547-556, 1979. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0017-9310(79)90058-9.
- Chen, J. and Kruse, H., “Calculating Circulation Concentration of Zeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures,” HVAC&R Research 1(3):219-231, 1995, doi:10.1080/10789669.1995.10391320.