This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Spray Model Based Phenomenological Combustion Description and Experimental Validation for a Dual Fuel Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 04, 2017 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
The operation of dual fuel engines, operated with natural gas as main fuel, offers the potential of substantial savings in CO2. Nevertheless, the operating map area where low pollutant emissions are produced is very narrow. Especially at low load, the raw exhaust gas contains high concentrations of unburned methane and, with high pilot fuel portions due to ignition limitations, also soot. The analysis of the combustion in those conditions in particular is not trivial, since multiple combustion modes are present concurrently.
The present work focuses on the evaluation of the individual combustion modes of a dual fuel engine, operated with natural gas as main and diesel as pilot fuel, using a combustion model. The combustion has been split in two partwise concurrent combustion phases: the auto-ignition phase and the premixed flame propagation phase. In order to calculate the amount of fuel and equivalence ratio distribution of the diesel and substrate at ignition, a simplified spray model is used. The trapped natural gas within the spray volume provides the basis for the distribution of fuel burnt in the auto-ignition phase and in the premixed flame propagation. The sum of the auto-ignition combustion mode and the premixed flame propagation combustion mode represents the total of the heat released, disregarding the cool flame, heat losses and unburned fuel.
The description has been calibrated on a 4 cylinder, 2 litre Volkswagen Industrial Diesel Engine, modified to include natural gas port injection. The engine was operated with a wide variation of settings, ranging from low to high load, globally lean and stoichiometric with pilot fuel mass ratio from 2% to 50% and different EGR rates. The heat release rate derived from the pressure curve shows very good agreement with the sum of the individual combustion modes in all the abovementioned engine operating conditions. The ability to distinguish between the individual combustion modes, offered by the developed combustion description herein aids in the understanding of the engine operation limitations. The predictive model shows a strong dependency on the ignition delay which is itself challenging to model. Consequently the accuracy of predicted combustion characteristics are limited to the accuracy of the modelled ignition delay.
CitationBarro, C., Nani, C., Hutter, R., and Boulouchos, K., "Spray Model Based Phenomenological Combustion Description and Experimental Validation for a Dual Fuel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2017-24-0098, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-24-0098.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
- Karim, G., Liu, Z., and Jones, W., "Exhaust Emissions from Dual Fuel Engines at Light Load," SAE Technical Paper 932822, 1993, doi:10.4271/932822.
- Aroonsrisopon, T., Salad, M., Wirojsakunchai, E., Wannatong, K. et al., "Injection Strategies for Operational Improvement of Diesel Dual Fuel Engines under Low Load Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1855, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-1855.
- Badr, O., Karim G.A., and Liu B., An examination of the flame spread limits in a dual fuel engine. Applied Thermal Engineering, 1999. 19(10): p. 1071-1080.
- Ishiyama, T., Kang, J., Ozawa, Y., and Sako, T., "Improvement of Performance and Reduction of Exhaust Emissions by Pilot-Fuel-Injection Control in a Lean-Burning Natural-Gas Dual-Fuel Engine," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 5(1):243-253, 2012, doi:10.4271/2011-01-1963.
- Papagiannakis, R.G. and Hountalas D.T., Experimental investigation concerning the effect of natural gas percentage on performance and emissions of a DI dual fuel diesel engine. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2003. 23(3): p. 353-365.
- Ryu, K., Effects of pilot injection timing on the combustion and emissions characteristics in a diesel engine using biodiesel-CNG dual fuel. Applied Energy, 2013. 111: p. 721-730.
- Rochussen, J., Yeo, J., and Kirchen, P., "Effect of Fueling Control Parameters on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Diesel-Ignited Methane Dual-Fuel Combustion," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0792, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0792.
- Xu, S., et al., A phenomenological combustion analysis of a dual-fuel natural-gas diesel engine. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 2017. 231(1): p. 66-83.
- Johnson, S.L., et al., A Phenomenological Approach to Dual Fuel Combustion Modelling. 2012(55096): p. 781-791.
- Xu, S., Anderson, D., Singh, A., Hoffman, M. et al., "Development of a Phenomenological Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Diesel Engine Simulation and Its Use for Analysis of Transient Operations," SAE Int. J. Engines 7(4):1665-1673, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2546.
- Papagiannakis, R.G., et al., A combined experimental and theoretical study of diesel fuel injection timing and gaseous fuel/diesel mass ratio effects on the performance and emissions of natural gas-diesel HDDI engine operating at various loads. Fuel, 2017. 202: p. 675-687.
- Hountalas, D. and Papagiannakis, R., "A Simulation Model for the Combustion Process of Natural Gas Engines with Pilot Diesel Fuel as an Ignition Source," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1245, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-1245.
- Papagiannakis, R., Hountalas, D., and Kotsiopoulos, P., "Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Combustion and Pollutants Formation Mechanisms in Dual Fuel DI Diesel Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1726, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-1726.
- Taritas, I., Kozarac, D., Sjeric, M., Sierra Aznar, M. et al., "Development and Validation of a Quasi-Dimensional Dual Fuel (Diesel - Natural Gas) Combustion Model," SAE Int. J. Engines 10(2):483-500, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0517.
- Schlatter, S., Schneider, B., Wright, Y., and Boulouchos, K., "Experimental Study of Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Pilot Spray in a Lean Premixed Methane/Air Charge using a Rapid Compression Expansion Machine," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0825, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0825.
- Schlatter, S., et al., N-heptane micro pilot assisted methane combustion in a Rapid Compression Expansion Machine. Fuel, 2016. 179: p. 339-352.
- Karim, G., Ito, K., Abraham, M., and Jensen, L., "An Examination of the Role of Formaldehyde in the Ignition Processes of a Dual Fuel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 912367, 1991, doi:10.4271/912367.
- Vibe, I.I., Brennverlauf und Kreisprozess von Verbrennungsmotoren (Heat release and thermodynamic cycle of internal combustion engines) 1970, Berlin: VEB Verlag Technik.
- Ghojel, J.I., Review of the development and applications of the Wiebe function: A tribute to the contribution of Ivan Wiebe to engine research. International Journal of Engine Research, 2010. 11(4): p. 297-312.
- Ott, T., Onder C., and Guzzella L., Hybrid-electric vehicle with natural gas-diesel engine. Energies, 2013. 6(7): p. 3571-3592.
- Ott, T., et al., Cylinder individual feedback control of combustion in a dual fuel engine. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 2013. 46(21): p. 600-605.
- Zurbriggen, F., Hutter R., and Onder C., Diesel-minimal combustion control of a natural gas-diesel engine. Energies, 2016. 9(1): p. 58.
- Naber, J. and Siebers, D., "Effects of Gas Density and Vaporization on Penetration and Dispersion of Diesel Sprays," SAE Technical Paper 960034, 1996, doi:10.4271/960034.
- Musculus, M.P.B. and Kattke K., Entrainment Waves in Diesel Jets. 2009.
- Barro, C., Lucjan, A., Li, Z., Kyrtatos, P. et al., "Development and Experimental Validation of a Fast Spray Ignition Model for Diesel Engines Using Insights from CFD Spray Calculations," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 10(2):2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0812.
- Malbec, L., Eagle, W., Musculus, M., and Schihl, P., "Influence of Injection Duration and Ambient Temperature on the Ignition Delay in a 2.34L Optical Diesel Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 9(1):47-70, 2016, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1830.
- Miles, P., Sahoo, D., Busch, S., Trost, J. et al., "Pilot Injection Ignition Properties Under Low-Temperature, Dilute In-Cylinder Conditions," SAE Int. J. Engines 6(4):1888-1907, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2531.
- Musculus, M., Lachaux, T., Pickett, L., and Idicheria, C., "End-of-Injection Over-Mixing and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions in Low-Temperature-Combustion Diesel Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0907, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-0907.
- Lata, D.B. and Misra A., Analysis of ignition delay period of a dual fuel diesel engine with hydrogen and LPG as secondary fuels. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2011. 36(5): p. 3746-3756.