This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
High Power Cell for Mild and Strong Hybrid Applications Including Chevrolet Malibu
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 28, 2017 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Electric vehicles have a strong potential to reduce a continued dependence on fossil fuels and help the environment by reducing pollution. Despite the desirable advantage, the introduction of electrified vehicles into the market place continues to be a challenge due to cost, safety, and life of the batteries. General Motors continues to bring vehicles to market with varying level of hybrid functionality. Since the introduction of Li-ion batteries by Sony Corporation in 1991 for the consumer market, significant progress has been made over the past 25 years. Due to market pull for consumer electronic products, power and energy densities have significantly increased, while costs have dropped. As a result, Li-ion batteries have become the technology of choice for automotive applications considering space and mass is very critical for the vehicles. Although there is not one definition for mild and strong hybrid, for the purpose of GM applications, mild hybrid systems have a nominal voltage range of 85-115V as nominal voltage range, and strong hybrid systems have a nominal voltage range of 300-325 V. This paper outlines how the vehicle propulsion system requirements are tied to cell selection on the basis of performance, safety, and packaging. A general cell format criteria and performance comparison of various options leading to selection of this particular high power cell is discussed. A prismatic metal can cell containing NMC as cathode material, combined with mixture of surface modified carbon with amorphous carbon, and electrolyte with additives in it was chosen to deliver optimal capacity, power, and a safe cell to meet battery pack requirements.
|Ground Vehicle Standard||Recommended Practice for Performance Rating of Electric Vehicle Battery Modules|
|Journal Article||Thermal Behavior Analysis of Polymer Composites in Lithium-Ion Battery Cell|
|Technical Paper||Energy Consumption Study for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle|
CitationSaharan, V. and Nakai, K., "High Power Cell for Mild and Strong Hybrid Applications Including Chevrolet Malibu," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1200, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-1200.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
- “Setting Emission Performance Standards for New Passengers Cars as Part of the Community’s Integrated Approach to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Light-Duty Vehicles”, Regulations (EC) No 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009, Official J. Eur. Union, L 140/1, 5 June 2009.
- Hawkins, S., Billotto, F., Cottrell, D., Houtman, A. , “Development of General Motors’ eAssist Powertrain,” SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 1(1):308–323, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1039.
- Grewe, T., Conlon, B., and Holmes, A., “Defining the General Motors 2-Mode Hybrid Transmission,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0273, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-0273.
- Miller, M., Holmes, A., Conlon, B., and Savagian, P., “The GM “Voltec” 4ET50 Multi-Mode Electric Transaxle,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):1102–1114, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0887.
- Conlon, B., Barth, M., Hua, C., Lyons, C. , “Development of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System for 2016 Chevrolet Malibu,” SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 5(2):259–271, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1169.
- Nagai, H., Morita, M., and Satoh, K., “Development of the Liion Battery Cell for Hybrid Vehicle,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1207, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1207.
- Ding, Y., Zanardelli, S., Skalny, D., and Toomey, L., “Technical Challenges for Vehicle 14V/28V Lithium Ion Battery Replacement,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1375, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-1375.
- Ehrlich, G.M., “Lithium-Ion Batteries” in Handbook of Batteries, Linden, D., and Reddy, T. B. (eds) 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002.
- Zimmerman, A. H., “Self-Discharge Losses in Lithium-ion Cells,” IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine 19 (2), 2004, 19–24, doi:10.1109/MAES.2004.1279687.
- Linden, D., and Magnusen, D., “Portable Sealed Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries” in Handbook of Batteries, Linden, D., and Reddy, T. B. (eds) 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002.
- Miller, P., “The Environmental Impact of Using Different Supply Voltages for HEVs and FCEVs,” IEE J. Trans. Ind. Appl., 2008, 128(7), 880–884.
- Oury, A., “2016 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid Battery pack,” Presentation at the Advanced Automotive Battery Conference, 2015.
- Gurein, J. T., “Battery Life Verification for the GM eAssist Hybrid System,” Presentation at the Advanced Automotive Battery Conference, 2012.
- Guo, Y., “Safety: Thermal Runaway,” Grache J. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Electrochemicals Power Sources, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2009 Vol. 4, 241–253.
- Doughty, D., “SAE J2464 “EV & HEV Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) Safety and Abuse Testing Procedure”,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1077, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1077.
- Martin Winter, “Material Selection for Li Batteries,” Advanced Automotive Battery and Ultracapacitor Conference, 2008.
- Roth, E. P., Doughty, D. H., and Pile, D. L., “Effects of Separator Breakdown on Abuse Response of 18650 Li-ion Cells”, J. Power Sources, 174 (2007), 579–583.
- Babrauskas, V., Ignition Handbook, Society of Fire Protection Engineers, 2003.
- Belov, D., and Yang, M. H., ‘Failure Mechanism of li-ion Battery at Overcharge Conditions,” J. Solid-State Electrochem. 12 (2008), 885–894.
- Maleki, H., and Howard, J. N., “Effects of Overdischarge on Performance and Thermal Stability of a Li-ion Cell,” J. Power Sources, 160 (2006) 1395–1402.