This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Experimental Validation of Jet Fuel Surrogates in an Optical Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 28, 2017 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Three jet fuel surrogates were compared against their target fuels in a compression ignited optical engine under a range of start-of-injection temperatures and densities. The jet fuel surrogates are representative of petroleum-based Jet-A POSF-4658, natural gas-derived S-8 POSF-4734 and coal-derived Sasol IPK POSF-5642, and were prepared from a palette of n-dodecane, n-decane, decalin, toluene, iso-octane and iso-cetane. Optical chemiluminescence and liquid penetration length measurements as well as cylinder pressure-based combustion analyses were applied to examine fuel behavior during the injection and combustion process. HCHO* emissions obtained from broadband UV imaging were used as a marker for low temperature reactivity, while 309 nm narrow band filtered imaging was applied to identify the occurrence of OH*, autoignition and high temperature reactivity. Jet-A and S-8 were well represented by their surrogate fuels under the conditions examined, while the Sasol-IPK surrogate emulated the low temperature heat release but had a shorter high temperature ignition delay compared to the target fuel. The IPK surrogate was also found to have a slightly greater liquid penetration length and greater low-temperature reactivity.
- Taewon Kim - Wayne State University
- Xi Luo - Wayne State University
- Mustafa Al-Sadoon - Wayne State University
- Ming-Chia Lai - Wayne State University
- Marcis Jansons - Wayne State University
- Doohyun Kim - University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
- Jason Martz - University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
- Angela Violi - University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
- Eric Gingrich - US Army TARDEC
CitationKim, T., Luo, X., Al-Sadoon, M., Lai, M. et al., "Experimental Validation of Jet Fuel Surrogates in an Optical Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0262, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0262.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 7]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 8]|
- Detail Specification, “Turbine Fuel, Aviation, Kerosene Type JP-8 (NATO F-34), NATO F-35, and JP-8+100 (NATO F-37),” MIL-DTL-83133J, 2015
- NATO HQ, “NATO Logistics Handbook,”ISBN: 978-92-845-0190-8
- Schihl, P., Hoogterp-Decker, L., and Gingrich, E., "The Ignition Behavior of a Coal to Liquid Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel in a Military Relevant Single Cylinder Diesel Engine,"SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 5(2):785–802, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1197.
- Dooley, S., Won, S.H., Haas, F.M., Santner, J.S., , “Development of Reduced Kinetic Models for Petroleum-Derived and Alternative Jet Fuels,” 50th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum, (AIAA 2014-3661), doi:10.2514/6.2014-3661.
- Won, S.H., Dooley, S., Veloo, P., Santner, J.S., , "Characterization of Global Combustion Properties with Simple Fuel Property Measurements for Alternative Jet Fuels", 50th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum, (AIAA 2014-3469), doi:10.2514/6.2014-3469.
- Colket, M., Edwards, T., Williams, S., Egolfopoulos, F., , "Development of an Experimental Database and Kinetic Models for Surrogate Jet Fuels", 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Aerospace Sciences Meetings, doi:10.2514-6.2007-770.
- Dooley, S., Won, S.H., Jahangirian, S., Ju, Y., , "An Experimentally Validated Surrogate Fuel for the Combustion Kinetics of S-8, a Synthetic Paraffinic Jet Aviation Fuel", 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Aerospace Sciences Meetings, doi:10.2514/6.2012-619.
- Dooley, S., Won, S.H., Chaos, M., Heyne, J., , “A jet fuel surrogate formulated by real fuel properties.”Combustion and Flame, 157(12):2333–2339, 2010.
- Wang, H. and Oehlschlaeger, M.A., “Autoignition studies of conventional and Fischer-Tropsch jet fuels,”Fuel, 98:249–258, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2012.03.041.
- Zhang, C., Hui, X., Lin, Y. and Sung, C.J., “Recent development in studies of alternative jet fuel combustion: Progress, challenges, and opportunities,”Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 54:120–138, 2016, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.09.056.
- Sjöberg, M. and Dec, J., "An Investigation of the Relationship Between Measured Intake Temperature, BDC Temperature, and Combustion Phasing for Premixed and DI HCCI Engines,"SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1900, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-1900.
- Musculus, M.P.B., Miles, P.C., and Pickett, L.M., “Conceptual models for partially premixed low-temperature diesel combustion,”Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 39(2-3):246–283, 2013, doi:10.1016/j.pecs.2012.09.001.
- Hwang, W., Dec, J. and Sjöberg, M., “Spectroscopic and chemical-kinetic analysis of the phases of HCCI autoignition and combustion for single- and two-stage ignition fuels,”Combustion and Flame, 154(3):387–409, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2008.03.019.
- Heywood, J.B., “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals,” (McGraw-Hill, 1988), ISBN:978-00-710-0499-2.
- Violi, A., Yan, S., Eddings, E.G., Sarofim, A.F., , “Experimental Formulation and Kinetic Model for JP-8 Surrogate Mixtures,”Combustion Science and Technology, 174(11-12):399–417, 2002, doi:10.1080/00102200215080.
- Holley, A.T., Dong, Y., Andac, M.G., Egolfopoulos, F.N., , “Ignition and Extinction of Non-Premixed Flames of Single-Component Liquid Hydrocarbons, Jet Fuels, and their Surrogates,”Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 31(1):1205–1213, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.proci.2006.07.208.
- Humer, S., Frassoldati, A., Granata, S., Faravelli, T., , “Experimental and kinetic modeling study of combustion of JP-8, its surrogates and reference components in laminar nonpremixed flows,”Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 31(1):393–400, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.008.
- Lenhert, D.B., Miller, D.L. and Cernansky, N.P., “The Oxidation of JP-8, Jet-A, and Their Surrogates in the Low and Intermediate Temperature Regime at Elevated Pressure,”Combustion Science and Technology, 179(5):845–861, 2007, doi:10.1080/00102200600672011.
- Dean, A.J., Penyazkov, O.G., Sevruk, K.L., Varatharajan, B., “Autoignition of Surrogate Fuel at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures,”Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 31(2):2481–2488, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.proci.2006.07.162.
- Edwards, T. and Maurice, L.Q., “Surrogate Mixtures to Represent Complex Aviation and Rocket Fuels,”Journal of Propulsion and Power, 17(2):461–466, 2001, doi:10.2514/2.5765.
- Pitz, W., Cernansky, N., Dryer, F., Egolfopoulos, F., "Development of an Experimental Database and Chemical Kinetic Models for Surrogate Gasoline Fuels,"SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0175, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-0175.
- Kim, D., Martz, J., Violi, A., “A Surrogate for Emulating the Physical and Chemical Properties of Conventional Jet Fuels,”Combustion and Flame, 161(6):1489–1498, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2013.12.015.
- Kim, D., Martz, J., Abdul-Nour, A., Yu, X., , “An Inclusive Six-Component Surrogate for Emulating the Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Conventional and Alternative Jet Fuels and their Blends,”Combustion and Flame, 2016, submitted.
- Yu, X., Luo, X., Jansons, M., Kim, D., "A Fuel Surrogate Validation Approach Using a JP-8 Fueled Optically Accessible Compression Ignition Engine,"SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 8(1):119–134, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0906.
- Luo, X., Yu, X., and Jansons, M., "Simultaneous In-Cylinder Surface Temperature Measurements with Thermocouple, Laser-induced Phosphorescence, and Dual Wavelength Infrared Diagnostic Techniques in an Optical Engine,"SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1658, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1658.
- Yu, X., Zha, K., Florea, R., and Jansons, M., "Comparison of In-Cylinder Soot Evolution in an Optically Accessible Engine Fueled with JP-8 and ULSD,"SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 5(2):875–891, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1315.
- Yu, X., Zha, K., Luo, X., Taraza, D., "Simulation and Experimental Measurement of CO2*, OH* and CH2O* Chemiluminescence from an Optical Diesel Engine Fueled with n-Heptane,"SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0010, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-24-0010.
- Yu X., “Methodology for Validating Multi-Dimensional Engine Combustion Models and Fuel Surrogates using an Optically Accessible Compression Ignition Engine,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Mechanical Engineering Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, 2016.
- Joshi, U., Zheng, Z., Shrestha, A., Henein, A., “An Investigation on Sensitivity of Ignition Delay and Activation Energy in Diesel Combustion,”J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(9):091506–091506-8, 2015, doi:10.1115/1.4029777.
- Moses, C.A., “Comparative Evaluation of Semi-Synthetic Jet Fuels,” Final Report, CRC Project No. AV-2-04a, 2008.
- Mancaruso, E. and Vaglieco B.M., “Spectroscopic measurements of premixed combustion in diesel engine”, Fuel, 2011. 90(2):p.511–520.
- Mancaruso, E. and Vaglieco B.M., “Spectroscopic analysis of the phases of premixed combustion in a compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel and ethanol”, Applied Energy, 2015. 143:p.164–175.
- Jansons, M., , “Experimental Investigation of Single and Two-Stage Ignition in a Diesel Engine”, SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1071, 2008.
- Gaydon, A.G., The Spectroscopy of Flames. 1957, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
- Gaydon, A.G., Flames; their structure, radiation and temperature. 1970, London: Chapman and Hall.