This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Prediction of Injury Risk in Pedestrian Accidents Using Virtual Human Model VIRTHUMAN: Real Case and Parametric Study
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 05, 2016 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
In this work we present the VIRTHUMAN model as a tool for injury risk assessment in pedestrian crash scenarios. It is a virtual human body model formed of a multibody structure and deformable segments to account for the mechanical response of soft tissues. Extensive validation has been performed to ensure its biofidelity. Due to the scaling algorithm implemented, variations in the human population in terms of height, weight, gender and age can be considered. Assessment of the injury risk is done via automatic evaluation software developed. Injury criteria for individual body parts are evaluated using accelerations, forces and displacements of certain points. Injury risk is indicated by the colour of particular body parts in accordance with NCAP rating. A real accident is investigated in this work. A 60-year-old female was hit laterally by a passenger vehicle with the impact velocity of 40 km/h. The accident is reconstructed using VIRTHUMAN as pedestrian representative. Good agreement of the simulation and real data in terms of falling distance and injury sustained by pedestrian is obtained. Finally, a parametric study is performed based on the real accident. Crash scenarios with vehicle hitting various pedestrian representatives at 40 km/h and 45 km/h are analyzed. The results indicate the injury patterns sustained by pedestrians are dependent on their height.
CitationVychytil, J., Hyncik, L., Manas, J., Pavlata, P. et al., "Prediction of Injury Risk in Pedestrian Accidents Using Virtual Human Model VIRTHUMAN: Real Case and Parametric Study," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1511, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-1511.
- EuroNCAP, "Pedestrian CAE Models & Codes," Version 1.0., Technical Bulletin 13, 2012.
- Van Rooij, L., Bhalla, K., Meissner, M., Ivarsson, J. et al., "Pedestrian crash reconstruction using multi-body modelling with geometrically detailed, validated vehicle models and advanced pedestrian injury criteria," 18th ESV Conference, 2003.
- Huber, P., Prüggler, A., Kirschbichler, S., Steidl, T. et al., "Occupant Model for Integrated Safety: Recent Results in Testing and Simulation," Presented at 5th International Symposium on Human Modeling and Simulation in Automotive Engineering, Munich, 2014.
- Hyncik, L., Cechova, H., Kovar, L., and Blaha, P., "On Scaling Virtual Human Models," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0074, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0074.
- Combest, J.J., "Status and next phases of the Global Human Body Models Consortium," Presented at 5th International Symposium on Human Modeling and Simulation in Automotive Engineering, Munich, 2014.
- Meijer, R., "Development of an improved human model for pedestrian safety," Presented at 3rd International Symposium on Human Modelling and Simulation in Automotive Engineering, Aschaffenburg, 2011.
- Yang, K.H., Hu, J., White, N.A., King, A.I. et al., "Development of Numerical Models for Injury Biomechanics Research: A Review of 50 Years of Publications in the Stapp Car Crash Conference," Stapp Car Crash Journal 50:429-490, 2006.
- Kitagawa, Y., and Yasuki, T., "Development and Application of THUMS* Version 4," Presented at 5th International Symposium on Human Modeling and Simulation in Automotive Engineering, Munich, 2014.
- Carter, E.L., and Neal-Sturgess, C.E., "MADYMO reconstruction of a real-world collision between a vehicle and cyclist," International Journal of Crashworthiness 14(4):379-390, 2009, doi: 10.1080/13588260902823999.
- Brolin, K., Wismans, J., Östh, J., Vazquez, M.M. et al., "Human Body Modelling with Active Musculature for Integrated Safety Analyses," Presented at 3rd International Symposium on Human Modeling and Simulation in Automotive Engineering, Aschaffenburg, 2011.
- Vychytil, J., Manas, J., Cechova, H., Spirk, S. et al., "Scalable Multi-Purpose Virtual Human Model for Future Safety Assessment," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-0534, 2014, doi: 10.4271/2014-01-0534.
- CARHS, "Safety Companion," Alzenau, Germany, 2014.
- Blaha, P. et al., "Anthropometric studies of the Czechoslovak population from 6 to 55 years," Vol. 1, part 2, Praha, 1986.
- Kerrigan, J.R., Murphy, D.B., Drinkwater, D.C., Kam, C.Y. et al., "Kinematic Corridors for PMHS Tested in Full-Scale Pedestrian Impact Tests," Paper No. 05-0394, Center for Applied Biomechanics, University of Virginia, United States, 2005.
- Vezin, P., Garnier, K., Bermond, F., and Verriest, J.P., "Comparison of Hybrid III, Thor-alpha and PMHS response in frontal sled tests," Stapp Car Crash Journal 46:1-26, 2002.
- Schmitt, K.U., Niederer, P., and Walz, F., "Trauma Biomechanics: Introduction to Accidental Injury," Springer, 2004.
- EuroNCAP, "Technical Bulletin: Data Format and Injury Criteria Calculation," Version 1.0, October 2014.
- Kleinberger, M., Sun, E., Eppinger, R., Kuppa, S. et al., "Development of Improved Injury Criteria for the Assessment of Advanced Automotive Restraint Systems," NHTSA, 1998.
- Mertz, H., and Patrick, L., "Strength and Response of the Human Neck," SAE Technical Paper 710855, 1971, doi: 10.4271/710855.
- Waagmeester, K., "Injury Criteria for Q-Dummies in Frontal Impact," UNECE Publication CRS-1-3, 2007.
- Forman, J.L. Del Pozo, E., Symeonidis, I., Duart, J. et al., "Fracture Tolerance Related to Skeletal Development and Aging Throughout Life: 3-Point Bending of Human Femurs," Proceedings of IRCOBI 2012, pp 524-539, 2012.
- Hyncik, L., Spirk, S., Vychytil, J., Kovar, L. et al., "VIRTHUMAN - Scalable Human Model for Safety Applications," Presented at ESI Global Forum, Paris, 2014.
- Bohannon,R.W., "Comfortable and maximum walking speed of adults aged 20-79 years: reference values and determinants," Age and Ageing 26:15-19, 1997.
- Campestrini, M., and Mock, P., "European Vehicle Market Statistics," ICCT publication, 2011.