This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 5, 2016 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure. Spray injection was modeled using a Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the new model was implemented through the user-defined functions. A Siemens outwardly-opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated with existing experimental data at the injection pressure of 100 bar. It was found that the collision modeling becomes important in the current injector because of dense spray near nozzle. The injection distribution model showed insignificant effects on spray due to small initial droplets. It was demonstrated that the new model can predict the liquid penetration length and local SMD with improved accuracy for the injector under study.
CitationSim, J., Badra, J., Elwardany, A., and Im, H., "Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0844, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0844.
- Lefebvre, A., “Gas Turbine Combustion, Combustion: An International Series, 2nd Edition,” (Philadelphia, Taylor & Francis, 1998), ISBN 1-56032-673-5.
- Williams, F. A., “Combustion Theory, 2nd Edition,” (Redwood city, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1985), ISBN 0-8053-9801-5.
- Ra, Y., Loeper, P., Andrie, M., Krieger, R. et al., "Gasoline DICI Engine Operation in the LTC Regime Using Triple- Pulse Injection," SAE Int. J. Engines 5(3):1109-1132, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1131.
- Chang, J., Kalghatgi, G., Amer, A., and Viollet, Y., “Enabling High Efficiency Direct Injection Engine with Naphtha Fuel through Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0677, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0677.
- Chang, J., Viollet, Y., Amer, A., and Kalghatgi, G., “Fuel Economy Potential of Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Combustion with Naphtha Fuel,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2701, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2701.
- Han, Z., Parish, S., Farrell, P. V., and Reitz, R. D., “Modeling Atomization Processes of Pressure-Swirl Hollow-Cone Fuel Sprays,” Atomization and Sprays 7(6):663-684, 1997, doi:10.1615/AtomizSpr.v7.i6.70.
- Schmidt, D. P., Nouar, I., Senecal, P. K., Rutland, C. J., Martin, J. K., Reitz, R. D., and Hoffman, J. A., “Pressure-Swirl Atomization in the Near Field,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0496, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-0496.
- Senecal, P., Schmidt, D., Nouar, I., Rutland, C., Reitz, R., and Corradini, M., “Modeling High-speed Viscous Liquid Sheet Atomization,” International Journal of Multiphase Flow 25:1073-1097, 1999, doi:10.1016/S0301-9322(99)00057-9.
- Schwarz, C., Schünemann, E., Durst, B., Fischer, J., and Witt, A., “Potentials of the Spray-Guided BMW DI Combustion System,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1265, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-1265.
- Das, S., “Fluid Dynamic Study of Hollow Cone Sprays,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-0131, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-0131.
- Pischke, P., Martin, D., and Kneer, R., “Combined spray model for gasoline direct injection hollow-cone sprays,” Atomization and sprays 20(4):345-364, 2010, doi:10.1615/AtomizSpr.v20.i4.60.
- Martin, D., Cardensa, M., Pischke, P., and Kneer, R., “Experimental investigation of near nozzle spray structure and velocity for a GDI hollow cone spray,” Atomization and Sprays 20(12):1065-1076, 2010, doi:10.1615/AtomizSpr.v20.i12.40.
- O’Rourke, P., “Collective Drop Effects on Vaporizing Liquid Sprays,” Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, 1981.
- Post, S. L. and Abraham, J., “Modeling the outcome of drop- drop collisions in Diesel sprays,” International Journal of Multiphase Flow 28(6):997-1019, 2002, doi:10.1016/S0301-9322(02)00007-1.
- Munnannur, A., and Reitz, R., “A new predictive model for fragmenting and non-fragmenting binary droplet collisions,” International Journal of Multiphase Flow 33(8):873-896, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2007.03.003.
- Senecal, P., Richards, K. and Pomraning, E., "CONVERGE (version 2.2.0) Manual", (Madison, WI, Convergent Science Inc., 2014).
- Senecal, P. K., Richards, K. J., Pomraning, E., Yang, T., Dai, M. Z., McDavid, R. M., Patterson, M. A., Hou, S., and Shethaji, T., “A New Parallel Cut-Cell Cartesian CFD Code for Rapid Grid Generation Applied to In-Cylinder Diesel Engine Simulations,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0159, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-0159.
- Badra, J. A., Sim, J., Elwardany, A., Jaasim, M., et al., "Numerical Simulations of Hollow Cone Injection and Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion with Naphtha Fuels", Journal of Energy Resources Technology, In press, JERT-16-1011, 2016.
- Schmidt, D. P. and Rutland, C., “A New Droplet Collision Algorithm,” Journal of Computational Physics 164(1):62-80, 2000, doi:doi:10.1006/jcph.2000.6568.