Knock Prediction Using a Simple Model for Ignition Delay
Published April 5, 2016 by SAE International in United States
Annotation of this paper is available
An earlier paper has shown the ability to predict the phasing of knock onset in a gasoline PFI engine using a simple ignition delay equation for an appropriate surrogate fuel made up of toluene and PRF (TPRF). The applicability of this approach is confirmed in this paper in a different engine using five different fuels of differing RON, sensitivity, and composition - including ethanol blends. An Arrhenius type equation with a pressure correction for ignition delay can be found from interpolation of previously published data for any gasoline if its RON and sensitivity are known. Then, if the pressure and temperature in the unburned gas can be estimated or measured, the Livengood-Wu integral can be estimated as a function of crank angle to predict the occurrence of knock. Experiments in a single cylinder DISI engine over a wide operating range confirm that this simple approach can predict knock very accurately. The data presented should enable engineers to study knock or other auto-ignition phenomena e.g. in premixed compression ignition (PCI) engines without explicit chemical kinetic calculations.
CitationKalghatgi, G., Morganti, K., Algunaibet, I., Sarathy, M. et al., "Knock Prediction Using a Simple Model for Ignition Delay," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0702, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0702.
- Heywood, J.B. Internal combustion engine fundamentals. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1988.
- Kalghatgi, G.T., Chapter 4 in “Fuel/Engine Interactions,” (Warrendale, SAE International, 2013), doi:10.4271/R-409.
- Annual book of ASTM Standards Vol. 5.01-5.05. American Society of Testing Materials
- Kalghatgi, G., "Auto-Ignition Quality of Practical Fuels and Implications for Fuel Requirements of Future SI and HCCI Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0239, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0239.
- Kalghatgi, G., "Fuel Anti-Knock Quality - Part I. Engine Studies," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3584, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-3584.
- Kalghatgi, G., "Fuel Anti-Knock Quality- Part II. Vehicle Studies - How Relevant is Motor Octane Number (MON) in Modern Engines?," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3585, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-3585.
- Kalghatgi, G., Nakata, K., and Mogi, K., "Octane Appetite Studies in Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0244, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0244.
- Amer, A., Babiker, H., Chang, J., Kalghatgi, G. et al., "Fuel Effects on Knock in a Highly Boosted Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 5(3):1048-1065, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1634.
- Bell, A., "Modern SI Engine Control Parameter Responses and Altitude Effects with Fuels of Varying Octane Sensitivity," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1454, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1454.
- Fuel Antiknock Quality - Engine Response to RON vs MON, Scoping Tests - Final Report Coordinating Research Council (CRC), May 2011
- Mittal, V. and Heywood, J., "The Relevance of Fuel RON and MON to Knock Onset in Modern SI Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-2414, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-2414.
- Davies, T., Cracknell, R., Lovett, G., Cruff, L. et al., "Fuel Effects in a Boosted DISI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1985, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-1985.
- Mittal, V. and Heywood, J., "The Shift in Relevance of Fuel RON and MON to Knock Onset in Modern SI Engines Over the Last 70 Years," SAE Int. J. Engines 2(2):1-10, 2010, doi:10.4271/2009-01-2622.
- Risberg, P., Kalghatgi, G., and Ångstrom, H., "Auto- ignition Quality of Gasoline-Like Fuels in HCCI Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3215, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-3215.
- Kalghatgi, G. and Head, R., "The Available and Required Autoignition Quality of Gasoline - Like Fuels in HCCI Engines at High Temperatures," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1969, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-1969.
- Kalghatgi, G.T., Hildingsson, L., Harrison, A.J., L. and Johansson, B., 2011. “Surrogate fuels for premixed combustion in compression ignition engines”, International Journal of Engine Research, vol. 12, 5: pp. 452-465
- Kalghatgi, G., Head, R., Chang, J., Viollet, Y. et al., "An Alternative Method Based on Toluene/n-Heptane Surrogate Fuels for Rating the Anti-Knock Quality of Practical Gasolines," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(3):663-672, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2609.
- Kalghatgi, G., Babiker, H., and Badra, J., "A Simple Method to Predict Knock Using Toluene, N-Heptane and Iso-Octane Blends (TPRF) as Gasoline Surrogates," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(2):505-519, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0757.
- Andrae, J., Brinck, T. and Kalghatgi, G.T. “HCCI experiments with toluene reference fuels modeled by a semi-detailed chemical kinetic model”, Combustion and Flame, vol 155, pp 696-712, 2008
- Canella, W., Foster, M., Gunter, G and Leppard, W., CRC Report AVFL-24, “FACE Gasolines and Blends with Ethanol: Detailed Characterization of Physical and Chemical Properties”, 2014
- Ahmed A., Goteng G., Shankar V.S.B., Al-Qurashi K., Roberts W.L., Sarathy S.M., “A computational methodology for formulating gasoline surrogate fuels with accurate physical and chemical kinetic properties”, Fuel 143 (2015) 290-300
- Bradley, D.2012. “Autoignitions and detonations in engines and ducts." Phil.Trans.R.Soc A. 370: pp 689-714
- Westbrook, C.K. 2000. “Chemical kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition in practical combustion systems.” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 28: pp 1563-1577
- Kalghatgi, G., Snowdon, P., and McDonald, C., "Studies of Knock in a Spark Ignition Engine with “CARS” Temperature Measurements and Using Different Fuels," SAE Technical Paper 950690, 1995, doi:10.4271/950690.
- Kalghatgi, G.T., Golombok, M. and Snowdon,P., " Fuel Effects on Knock, Heat Release and "CARS" Temperatures in a Spark-Ignition Engine", Combust. Sci. Tech., vol.110-111, p 209, 1995
- Sjöberg M. , Dec J.E., “Comparing late-cycle auto-ignition stability for single- and two-stage ignition fuels in HCCI engines”, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 31 (2007) 2895-2902
- Douaud, A. and Eyzat, P., "Four-Octane-Number Method for Predicting the Anti-Knock Behavior of Fuels and Engines," SAE Technical Paper 780080, 1978, doi:10.4271/780080.