This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Investigating Limitations of a Two-Zone NOx Model Applied to DI Diesel Combustion Using 3-D Modeling
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 05, 2016 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
A two-zone NOx model intended for 1-D engine simulations was developed and used to model NOx emissions from a 2.5 L single-cylinder engine. The intent of the present work is to understand key aspects of a simple NOx model that are needed for predictive accuracy, including NOx formation and destruction phenomena in a DI Diesel combustion system. The presented two-zone model is fundamentally based on the heat release rate and thermodynamic incylinder data, and uses the Extended Zeldovich mechanism to model NO. Results show that the model responded very well to changes in speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level. It matched measured tail pipe NOx levels within 20%, using a single tuning setup. When the model was applied to varied injection rate shapes, it showed correct sensitivity to speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level, but the absolute level was well outside the target accuracy. The same limitation was seen when applying the Plee NOx model. Detailed CFD simulations showed that NO destruction is significant, occurs throughout the mixing controlled heat release, and can be up to 35% of the total formed NO. NO formation was confirmed to primarily occur in fuel lean regions around equivalence ratios of 0.95, and NO destruction was found to primarily occur in fuel rich regions stemming from the third Extended Zeldovich reaction. Fuel injection rate shaping changed the balance of NO formation and destruction in engine applications, but not in free-jet scenarios. Future paths focus on building the necessary fidelity into a computationally efficient NOx model, leveraging understanding from more detailed approaches.
CitationKoci, C., Svensson, K., and Gehrke, C., "Investigating Limitations of a Two-Zone NOx Model Applied to DI Diesel Combustion Using 3-D Modeling," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0576, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0576.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Ahmad, T. and Plee, S., "Application of Flame Temperature Correlations to Emissions from a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 831734, 1983, doi:10.4271/831734.
- Egnell, R., "Combustion Diagnostics by Means of Multizone Heat Release Analysis and NO Calculation," SAE Technical Paper 981424, 1998, doi:10.4271/981424.
- Ericson, C., Westerberg, B., Andersson, M., and Egnell, R., "Modelling Diesel Engine Combustion and NOx Formation for Model Based Control and Simulation of Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0687, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-0687.
- Andersson, M., Johansson, B., Hultqvist, A., and Noehre, C., "A Predictive Real Time NOx Model for Conventional and Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3329, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-3329.
- Andersson, M., Johansson, B., Hultqvist, A., and Nöhre, C., "A Real Time NOx Model for Conventional and Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0195, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-0195.
- Miller, J.A. and Bowman, C.T., “Mechanism and Modeling of Nitrogen Chemistry in Combustion,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 15, pp. 287-338, 1989, doi:10.1016/0360-1285(89)90017-8.
- Heywood, J.B., “Internal combustion engine fundamentals,” Mcgraw-Hill, 1988.
- Hanson,R.K. and Salimian, S., “Survey of Rate Constants in the N/H/O System,” in Combustion Chemistry, ed. Gardiner W.C., Jr., pp. 361-422, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984.
- Dean, A.M. and Bozzelli, J.W., “Combustion Chemistry of Nitrogen,” in Gas-Phase Combustion Chemistry, ed. Gardiner W.C., Jr., pp. 125-342, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2000.
- Turns, S.R., “An Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications, 2nd ed.,” Mcgraw-Hill, 2001.
- Glassman, I.G., “Combustion, 3rd ed.” Academic Press, 1996.
- Moses, E., Yarin, A.L, and Bar-Yoseph, P., “On Knocking in Spark Ignition Engines,” Combustion and Flame, Vol. 101, pp. 239-261, May 1995, doi:10.1016/0010-2180(94)00202-4
- Keating, E.L., “Applied combustion,” Dekker, 1993.
- Caton, J., “Detailed Results for Nitric Oxide Emissions as Determined From a Multiple-Zone Cycle Simulation for a Spark-Ignition Engine,” ASME 2002 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF2002-491, 131-148, 2002, doi:10.1115/ICEF2002-491.
- Finesso, R. and Spessa, E., "Real-Time Predictive Modeling of Combustion and NOx Formation in Diesel Engines Under Transient Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0899, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0899.
- Payri, F., Arrègle, J., López, J., and Mocholí, E., "Diesel NOx Modeling with a Reduction Mechanism for the Initial NOx Coming from EGR or Re-entrained Burned Gases," SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1188, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-1188.
- Arrègle, J., López, J., Martín, J., and Mocholí, E., "Development of a Mixing and Combustion Zero-Dimensional Model for Diesel Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1382, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-1382.
- Kihas, D. and Uchanski, M., "Engine-Out NOx Models for on-ECU Implementation: A Brief Overview," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1638, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1638.
- Tree, D. and Cooley, W., "A Comparison and Model of NOx Formation for Diesel Fuel and Diethyl Ether," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0654, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0654.
- Karaky, H., Mauviot, G., Tauzia, X., and Maiboom, A., "Development and Validation of a New Zero-Dimensional Semi-Physical NOx Emission Model for a D.I. Diesel Engine Using Simulated Combustion Process," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(4):1924-1937, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1746.
- Gibson, D., "A Flexible Fuel Injection Simulation," SAE Technical Paper 861567, 1986, doi:10.4271/861567.
- Fluga, E., "Modeling of the Complete Vehicle Powertrain Using ENTERPRISE," SAE Technical Paper 931179, 1993, doi:10.4271/931179.
- Sud, K., Cetinkunt, S., and Fiveland, S., "A Simulation Based Comprehensive Performance Evaluation of Cat® C4.4 Current Production Engine with its Split Cycle Clean Combustion Variant using a Validated One-Dimensional Modeling Methodology," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2434, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2434.
- Williams, D., Koci, C., and Fiveland, S., "Compression Ignition 6-Stroke Cycle Investigations," SAE Int. J. Engines 7(2):656-672, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1246.
- Svensson, K. and Koci, C., "Non-classical Orifice Characterization," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1431, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1431.
- Dec, J. and Canaan, R., "PLIF Imaging of NO Formation in a DI Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 980147, 1998, doi:10.4271/980147.
- Baulch, D.L., Drysdale, D.D., Horne, D.G., and Lloyd, A.C.,”Evaluated Kinetic Data for High Temperature Reactions, Vol. 2 - Homogeneous Gas Phase Rreactions of the H2-N2-O2 System,” Butterworths & Co. (Publishers) Ltd., London, 1973.
- Westley, F. “Table of Recommended Rate Constants for Chemical Reactions Occurring in Combustion,” National Bureau of Standards, 1980.